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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Mtk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Metchnikowin
Annotation Symbol
CG8175
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0014865
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Metchnikowin (Mtk) encodes an antifungal peptide that is secreted from the fat body during the systemic immune response, and is produced by various epithelia. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by the immune deficiency and/or Toll pathways. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
Metch, DIM 17
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:15,408,846..15,409,113 [+]
Recombination map
2-74
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES - OTHER -
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small secreted peptides with antifungal or antibacterial activity. AMPs are part of the innate immune response. The AMP-OTHER gene group encompasses AMPs that are single gene family members in D.mel. (Adapted from FBrf0241672.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Potent antifungal and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.
(UniProt, Q24395)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Mtk or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Mtk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087386
268
52
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
0.268 (sequence analysis)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086518
5.7
52
9.35
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Mtk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (8 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput expression pattern
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 6-24 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Mtk transcripts are expressed in embryos, and they are expressed in response to immunization with both gram positive and gram negative bacteria, up to 120 hours post immunization.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Mtk protein is induced in hemolymph after bacterial challenge. Time course studies with mass spectrometric analysis show that it is detectable within 6 hours of the challenge, increases substantially between 6hrs and 2 weeks, and is gone by 3 weeks after challenge.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Mtk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 1 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Mtk
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Mtk
Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KT9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-74
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:15,408,846..15,409,113 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    52A1-52A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}dupk03308 and P{lacW}Vha36k07207
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    52A1-52A2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (3)
    Genomic Clones (33)
    cDNA Clones (18)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Mtk BcDNA:RH07954
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of Mtk BcDNA:RH07954 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
      Other Comments
      Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day. Shows alteration in expression in a Clk mutant background.
      Induction of Mtk gene expression can be mediated by the Tl pathway or by imd.
      Identification: Encodes a protein that is induced by immune challenge.
      Ecol\lacZDpt.PR adults are pricked with a sterile needle dipped in culture pellets of various living microorganisms (distinct bacterial strains, fungal spores or hyphae). Pricking results in a low but clearly detectable expression of all antimicrobial genes and these genes are induced above the background level by specific classes of microorganism. Wild type adults covered with spores of B.bassiana induce persistent expression of Mtk.
      Mtk, a gene encoding a proline-rich immune-inducible peptide, has been cloned and sequenced.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      The gene is named 'Metchnikowin' in honour of E. Metchnikow who initiated the field of research into invertebrate immunity.
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (24)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BcDNA:RH07954
      Mtk
      (Chen et al., 2019, Chowdhury et al., 2019, Hanson et al., 2019, Sanuki et al., 2019, Wen et al., 2019, Badinloo et al., 2018, Barajas-Azpeleta et al., 2018, Green et al., 2018, Lindsay et al., 2018, Min and Tatar, 2018, Troha et al., 2018, Ueda et al., 2018, Yu et al., 2018, Aw et al., 2017, Liu and Jin, 2017, Moghaddam et al., 2017, Odnokoz et al., 2017, Barekat et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2016, Helenius et al., 2016, Katzenberger et al., 2016, Kiss et al., 2016, Piegholdt et al., 2016, Zhou et al., 2016, Dissel et al., 2015, Merkling et al., 2015, Sudmeier et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Donlea et al., 2014, Haller et al., 2014, Kuuluvainen et al., 2014, Lai et al., 2014, Liang et al., 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Tsuzuki et al., 2014, Varma et al., 2014, Zhu et al., 2014, Cao et al., 2013, Clark et al., 2013, Durdevic et al., 2013, Gendrin et al., 2013, Katzenberger et al., 2013, Kemp et al., 2013, Petersen et al., 2013, Radyuk et al., 2013, Short and Lazzaro, 2013, Stefanatos et al., 2013, Telonis-Scott et al., 2013, Thimgan et al., 2013, Chakrabarti et al., 2012, Marek and Kagan, 2012, Petersen et al., 2012, Tsuzuki et al., 2012, Wang et al., 2012, Clark et al., 2011, Gerbasi et al., 2011, Ladoukakis et al., 2011, Marcu et al., 2011, Becker et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Radyuk et al., 2010, Sabin et al., 2010, Yagi et al., 2010, Buchon et al., 2009, Helenius et al., 2009, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2009, Sackton and Clark, 2009, Seugnet et al., 2009, Zhang and Palli, 2009, Chamilos et al., 2008, Kwon et al., 2008, Linder et al., 2008, McGraw et al., 2008, Ranade et al., 2008, Reed et al., 2008, Spresser et al., 2008, Busse et al., 2007, Domanitskaya et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Leulier et al., 2006, Park et al., 2005, Shin et al., 2005, Wertheim et al., 2005, Lazzaro et al., 2004, Leulier et al., 2003, Rutschmann et al., 2002, Tauszig-Delamasure et al., 2002)
      Name Synonyms
      Drosophila Immune induced molecule 17
      Metchnikowin
      (Merkling et al., 2019, Singh and Tapadia, 2019, Garschall and Flatt, 2018, Li et al., 2017, Helenius et al., 2016, Katzenberger et al., 2016, Kaynar et al., 2016, Xiong et al., 2016, Castillo et al., 2015, Dissel et al., 2015, Merkling et al., 2015, Moskalev et al., 2015, Paparazzo et al., 2015, Arefin et al., 2014, Bonnay et al., 2014, Haller et al., 2014, Ji et al., 2014, Lai et al., 2014, Tan et al., 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Varma et al., 2014, Cao et al., 2013, Clark et al., 2013, Durdevic et al., 2013, Furihata et al., 2013, Oh et al., 2013, Thimgan et al., 2013, Chintapalli et al., 2012, Igboin et al., 2012, Longworth et al., 2012, Marek and Kagan, 2012, Paré et al., 2012, Petersen et al., 2012, Radyuk et al., 2012, Tsuzuki et al., 2012, Clark et al., 2011, Marcu et al., 2011, Ragab et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Becker et al., 2010, Fellous and Lazzaro, 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Radyuk et al., 2010, Yagi et al., 2010, Zhao et al., 2010, Carpenter et al., 2009, Costa et al., 2009, Gendrin et al., 2009, Helenius et al., 2009, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2009, Sackton and Clark, 2009, Flatt et al., 2008, Kleino et al., 2008, McGraw et al., 2008, Reed et al., 2008, Spresser et al., 2008, Tang et al., 2008, Tsai et al., 2008, Carlson et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Lai et al., 2007, Morozova et al., 2007, Pal et al., 2007, Taylor and Kimbrell, 2007, Waterhouse et al., 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Delaney et al., 2006, Lazzaro et al., 2006, Leulier et al., 2006, Senger et al., 2006, Gesellchen et al., 2005, Lazzaro et al., 2004, Roxstrom-Lindquist et al., 2004, Leulier et al., 2003, Ligoxygakis et al., 2002, Rutschmann et al., 2002, Tauszig-Delamasure et al., 2002, Rutschmann et al., 2000)
      Metchnikowin A
      Metchnikowin B
      Metchnikowin precursor
      Metchnikowine
      metchikowin
      metchinkowin
      metchnikovin
      metchnikowin-1
      metchnikowin-2
      metchnkowin
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0061385
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (265)