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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\p38a
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
p38a MAP kinase
Annotation Symbol
CG5475
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0015765
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (2.7.11.24)
Gene Snapshot
p38a MAP kinase (p38a) encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases responsive to diverse stresses. In immune response, it activates its downstream component encoded by Atf-2 that in turn regulates Duox expression. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

p38, Mpk2, D-p38a, p38 MAPK, Erk2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,150,416..24,152,321 [-]
Recombination map

3-83

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:24150416..24152321
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily. (O62618)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.24)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.24)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CONVENTIONAL MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES -
Conventional Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are proline-directed protein serine/threonine kinases that are components of the MAPK signaling cascade. MAPKs are activated by dual phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr residues within a conserved Thr-X-Tyr motif located in the activation loop by MAPK kinases. (Adapted from PMID:21372320).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Kinase involved in a signal transduction pathway. May down-regulate insect immunity gene expression after prolonged infection.
(UniProt, O62618)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

p38a serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in response stress including heat shock, oxidative stress and starvation - activates its downstream component Atf-2 that in turn regulates Duox expression

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\p38a or the JBrowse view of Dmel\p38a for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084580
1450
366
FBtr0084581
1634
366
FBtr0300572
1474
366
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.438 (longest cDNA)

1.441 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083965
42.3
366
6.84
FBpp0083966
42.3
366
6.84
FBpp0289799
42.3
366
6.84
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

366 aa isoforms: p38a-PA, p38a-PB, p38a-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

366 (aa); 42 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Domain

The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases.

(UniProt, O62618)
Post Translational Modification

Dually phosphorylated on Thr-184 and Tyr-186, which activates the enzyme.

(UniProt, O62618)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\p38a using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (27 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with SGD:S000004103
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002372889
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:6876
traceable author statement
Biological Process (22 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (20 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:p38b; FB:FBgn0024846
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:p38b; FB:FBgn0024846
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:6876
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data

p38a transcripts are detected predominantly in preblastoderm embryos by in situ hybridization. In late embryos, a low level of staining is observed in the posterior region. Transcripts are detected at a low level throughout development on northern blots.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\p38a in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 4 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of p38a
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of p38a
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
No
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
 
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
No
12 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
12 of 13
Yes
No
11 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
No
5 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (13)
14 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (22)
4 of 9
Yes
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (9)
11 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
9 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909LN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915068V )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06A2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X065J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08QL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (10)
9 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-83

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,150,416..24,152,321 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
95E5-95E5
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Syx1A06737&P{PZ}Syx1A10660 and P{PZ}crb07207&P{PZ}BRWD305842
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
95E4-95F1
95E4-95F1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (10)
Genomic Clones (18)
 
cDNA Clones (31)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: Mpk2 CG5475

Source for identity of: p38a Mpk2

Source for database merge of
Additional comments

Renamed from 'Mpk2' to 'p38a' to: i) make nomenclature consistent between p38 genes; ii) reflect the preferred usage in the literature; iii) reflect the preferred symbol used in the first peer-reviewed papers to characterize the gene (FBrf0100059, FBrf0102625).

The p38a and p38b genes share at least 50% identity.

Relationship of "Mpk2" to "Erk-B" not known.

Other Comments

Null mutants are homozygous viable with no developmental defects, though show susceptibility to some environmental stresses including heat shock, oxidative stress and starvation. Immune response profile of Mpk2 mutants is largely normal.

Mpk2 activation in response to NaCl and heat shock is markedly reduced in Mekk1 mutants compared to wild type.

Mekk1 regulation of the Mpk2/p38b pathway is critical for the response to environmental stresses.

Mpk2 is cloned and sequenced from a neoplasmic l(2)mbn cell line. Study of the protein and its function reveals that similar osmotic stress-responsive signal transduction pathways are conserved in yeast, Drosophila and mammalian cells.

Mpk2 partially functionally complements the function of S.cerevisiae Scer\HOG1 in a hyperosmotic environment.

Mpk2 has been cloned and sequenced.

Overexpression of Mpk2 suppresses the lipopolysaccharide induction of immunity genes.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 78 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Name Synonyms
Erk-kinase-like
Mpk2
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase
stress-activated kinase P38
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0013952
  • FBgn0022991
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (172)