General Information
Symbol
Dmel\apt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
apontic
Annotation Symbol
CG5393
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0015903
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Apontic (Apt) is a DNA-binding protein that acts as a transcriptional regulator and can function in translational repression. Apt plays roles in cell migration, cell fate specification, and morphogenesis via STAT signaling pathway inhibition. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Also Known As
tdf, l(2)09049, l(2)59Ea, l(2)06369
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,564,891..23,599,526 [+]
Recombination map
2-104
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
SANT-MYB DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The SANT-MYB domain transcription factors are sequence specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. The Myb domain is a DNA binding helix-turn-helix domain that contains three tandem repeats of 50 amino acids, termed R1, R2 and R3. The α-helical repeats R2 and R3 are involved in the DNA interaction. (Adapted from PMID:10378697).
Negative Regulators of JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of JAK-STAT signaling down-regulate the pathway, attenuating transcriptional control by Stat92E.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\apt or the JBrowse view of Dmel\apt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072070
2827
483
FBtr0072066
2608
489
FBtr0072069
2783
483
FBtr0072067
2762
483
FBtr0072068
2775
469
FBtr0332926
2655
499
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.9 (northern blot)
2.8 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071979
54.5
483
6.52
FBpp0071975
55.1
489
6.52
FBpp0071978
54.5
483
6.52
FBpp0071976
54.5
483
6.52
FBpp0071977
52.9
469
6.62
FBpp0305146
56.3
499
6.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

483 aa isoforms: apt-PA, apt-PC, apt-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\apt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (22 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-18 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
During oogenesis, apt transcript is detected both in somatic follicle cells, and the nurse cells and oocyte. Expression is detected early, at low levels in the germarium region 2a and at higher levels in the follicle cells. Somatic expression decreases while germline expression increases. At stage S6, expression is found in both the oocyte and in nurse cells, and continues to be detected throughout oogenesis.
A single 2.9 kb apt transcript is detected in Northern blots of 0-18 hr embryos. Maternal transcripts are uniformly distributed in the unfertilized egg and in the syncytial blastoderm. In the cellular blastoderm, transcript is distributed in 3 distinct regions. At stage 11, expression is detected in developing tracheal placodes, the head region, and dorsal vessel cells. Transcripts are maintained in tracheal cells after they migrate inwards, and during tracheal branch outgrowth. During stages 14-17, expression is mainly detected in the CNS, the developing head, the tracheal system, and dorsal vessel cells.
apt transcripts are ubiquitous in syncytial blastoderm stage embryos, but become restricted to the poles in cellular blastoderm stage embryos. The posterior expression disappears during germ band extension, and a segmentally repeated expression pattern appears in the trunk. This expression is found along the ventral midline, in dorsal cells abutting the amnioserosa, and in the tracheal placodes. In the head regions of stage 9-10 embryos, expression is detected in the dorsal part of the acron, the clypeo-labrum, the ventral gnathal region, and in the anterio-lateral regions of the mandibular, maxillary, and labial lobes. During stage 11, expression increases in the dorsal ridge, but disappears from the tracheal pits. At stage 12, the presumptive dorsal vessel cells in a single row on either side of the amnioserosa accumulate apt transcript; expression is also found in the ventral CNS. Expression in late embryogenesis is found in the head epidermis and CNS.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The apt expression in border follicle cell clusters overlaps Socs36E expression at stage S8.
apt protein is detected in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of germline cells. In the nurse cell, apt protein localizes more strongly to the cytoplasm, while it is more concentrated in the nucleus of the oocyte. In follicle cells, however, localization is nuclear. In early embryos, even after the nuclei have migrated to the surface of the embryo, apt protein is evenly distributed between nucleus and cytoplasm.
apt protein is evenly distributed in they cytoplasm of syncytial blastoderm stage embryos. Subsequently, expression is detected in the nucleus, and remains nuclear throughout the rest of embryogenesis. Expression is detected in all nuclei in the cellular blastoderm, and maintained until gastrulation. During stage 11, expression is detected in tracheal placodes and the head anlagen, while other expression disappears. At later stages, protein expression matches that of transcript expression.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\apt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 64 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of apt
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      0
      Yes
        0
        --
        Other relevant insertions
        insertion of mobile activating element
        miscellaneous insertions
        Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
        Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
        Summary of Phenotypes
        For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
        Lethality
        Allele
        Sterility
        Allele
        Other Phenotypes
        Allele
        Phenotype manifest in
        Allele
        anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
        anterior fascicle & synapse | supernumerary, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        1 of 15
        Yes
        No
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        1 of 15
        Yes
        No
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
        1 of 13
        Yes
        No
        1 of 13
        Yes
        Yes
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
        1 of 12
        Yes
        No
        1 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
        1 of 15
        Yes
        No
        1 of 15
        Yes
        No
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908KU )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        AAA Syntenic Ortholog
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Drosophila melanogaster
        fruit fly
        Drosophila suzukii
        Spotted wing Drosophila
        Drosophila simulans
        Drosophila sechellia
        Drosophila erecta
        Drosophila yakuba
        Drosophila ananassae
        Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
        Drosophila persimilis
        Drosophila willistoni
        Drosophila virilis
        Drosophila mojavensis
        Drosophila mojavensis
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505BK )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Glossina morsitans
        Tsetse fly
        Lucilia cuprina
        Australian sheep blowfly
        Mayetiola destructor
        Hessian fly
        Aedes aegypti
        Yellow fever mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Culex quinquefasciatus
        Southern house mosquito
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07SI )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07NY )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
        Human Disease Model Data
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
          Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
          Download
          Models ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Interactions ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Comments ( 0 )
           
          Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
          Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
          Homo sapiens (Human)
          Gene name
          Score
          OMIM
          OMIM Phenotype
          Complementation?
          Transgene?
          Functional Complementation Data
          Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
          Interactions
          Summary of Physical Interactions
          Summary of Genetic Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          esyN Network Key:
          Suppression
          Enhancement

          Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          enhanceable
          External Data
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          Pathways
          Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
          Negative Regulators of JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway -
          Negative regulators of JAK-STAT signaling down-regulate the pathway, attenuating transcriptional control by Stat92E.
          External Data
          Linkouts
          Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
          Chromosome (arm)
          2R
          Recombination map
          2-104
          Cytogenetic map
          Sequence location
          2R:23,564,891..23,599,526 [+]
          FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Evidence for location
          59F1-59F4
          Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Dcp-102132 and P{EP}aptEP2339&P{PZ}apt06369
          Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Notes
          References
          59F1-59F2
          (determined by in situ hybridisation) 59F3--4 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          59F1-59F2
          59F3--59F4
          59F-59F
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          59E1-59E1
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          Recombination and deficiency mapping (details unspecified) confirm cytological location.
          Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
          Left of (cM)
          Right of (cM)
          Notes
          Stocks and Reagents
          Stocks (38)
          Genomic Clones (38)
          cDNA Clones (142)
           

          Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

          cDNA clones, fully sequences
          BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

            For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

            cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
            RNAi and Array Information
            Linkouts
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Antibody Information
            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
            Commercially Available Antibodies
             
            Other Information
            Relationship to Other Genes
            Source for database identify of
            Source for identity of: apt CG5393
            Source for database merge of
            Source for merge of: apt l(2)06369
            Source for merge of: apt l(2)59Ea
            Source for merge of: apt l(2)k11531
            Additional comments
            Other Comments
            apt is required for morphogenesis and function of the heart.
            Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
            Molecular characterisation of apt. apt protein activity enables cells to migrate during tracheal branch outgrowth and tube formation. apt activity is a prerequisite for tracheal cell migration but independent of directed cell migration in response to dpp and bnl signalling. apt function is not restricted to the tracheal system but is also required in various other embryonic tissues where the gene is expressed.
            apt is required for the elaboration of dorsal and ventral head structures. The apt protein acts in parallel to, or as a cofactor with, HOX proteins to regulate homeotic targets in the ventral gnathal region.
            Identified in a screen for modifiers of the Dfd13/Dfd3 mutant phenotype. Shows no interaction with the Pc mutant phenotype.
            Mutations isolated on the basis of having a dominant effect on the viability of flies carrying a combination of hypomorphic Dfd alleles.
            The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to identify the specific maternal effect phenotype for the zygotic lethal mutation.
            Embryonic lethal with abnormal head structures.
            Origin and Etymology
            Discoverer
            Etymology
            Identification
            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 76 )
            Crossreferences
            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
            RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
            UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            Other crossreferences
            BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
            InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
            Linkouts
            ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
            BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
            FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
            FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
            Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
            Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
            Reported As
            Symbol Synonym
            l(2)03041
            l(2)k11531
            Secondary FlyBase IDs
            • FBgn0010526
            • FBgn0010619
            • FBgn0010654
            • FBgn0016073
            • FBgn0021909
            • FBgn0023031
            Datasets (0)
            Study focus (0)
            Experimental Role
            Project
            Project Type
            Title
            References (159)