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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\apt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
apontic
Annotation Symbol
CG5393
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0015903
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
apontic (apt) encodes a DNA-binding protein that acts as a transcriptional regulator and can function in translational repression. It plays roles in cell migration, cell fate specification, and morphogenesis via STAT signaling pathway inhibition. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

tdf, tracheae defective, l(2)09049, l(2)06369, l(2)59Ea

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,564,891..23,599,526 [+]
Recombination map

2-104

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:23564891..23599526
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (20 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SANT-MYB DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The SANT-MYB domain transcription factors are sequence specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. The Myb domain is a DNA binding helix-turn-helix domain that contains three tandem repeats of 50 amino acids, termed R1, R2 and R3. The α-helical repeats R2 and R3 are involved in the DNA interaction. (Adapted from PMID:10378697).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of JAK-STAT signaling down-regulate the pathway, attenuating transcriptional control by Stat92E.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\apt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072070
2827
483
FBtr0072066
2608
489
FBtr0072069
2783
483
FBtr0072067
2762
483
FBtr0072068
2775
469
FBtr0332926
2655
499
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.9 (northern blot)

2.8 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071979
54.5
483
6.52
FBpp0071975
55.1
489
6.52
FBpp0071978
54.5
483
6.52
FBpp0071976
54.5
483
6.52
FBpp0071977
52.9
469
6.62
FBpp0305146
56.3
499
6.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

483 aa isoforms: apt-PA, apt-PC, apt-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\apt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-18 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

During oogenesis, apt transcript is detected both in somatic follicle cells, and the nurse cells and oocyte. Expression is detected early, at low levels in the germarium region 2a and at higher levels in the follicle cells. Somatic expression decreases while germline expression increases. At stage S6, expression is found in both the oocyte and in nurse cells, and continues to be detected throughout oogenesis.

A single 2.9 kb apt transcript is detected in Northern blots of 0-18 hr embryos. Maternal transcripts are uniformly distributed in the unfertilized egg and in the syncytial blastoderm. In the cellular blastoderm, transcript is distributed in 3 distinct regions. At stage 11, expression is detected in developing tracheal placodes, the head region, and dorsal vessel cells. Transcripts are maintained in tracheal cells after they migrate inwards, and during tracheal branch outgrowth. During stages 14-17, expression is mainly detected in the CNS, the developing head, the tracheal system, and dorsal vessel cells.

apt transcripts are ubiquitous in syncytial blastoderm stage embryos, but become restricted to the poles in cellular blastoderm stage embryos. The posterior expression disappears during germ band extension, and a segmentally repeated expression pattern appears in the trunk. This expression is found along the ventral midline, in dorsal cells abutting the amnioserosa, and in the tracheal placodes. In the head regions of stage 9-10 embryos, expression is detected in the dorsal part of the acron, the clypeo-labrum, the ventral gnathal region, and in the anterio-lateral regions of the mandibular, maxillary, and labial lobes. During stage 11, expression increases in the dorsal ridge, but disappears from the tracheal pits. At stage 12, the presumptive dorsal vessel cells in a single row on either side of the amnioserosa accumulate apt transcript; expression is also found in the ventral CNS. Expression in late embryogenesis is found in the head epidermis and CNS.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

apt protein is detected in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of germline cells. In the nurse cell, apt protein localizes more strongly to the cytoplasm, while it is more concentrated in the nucleus of the oocyte. In follicle cells, however, localization is nuclear. In early embryos, even after the nuclei have migrated to the surface of the embryo, apt protein is evenly distributed between nucleus and cytoplasm.

apt protein is detected in somatic and germline cells of the ovary throughout oogenesis.

apt protein is evenly distributed in they cytoplasm of syncytial blastoderm stage embryos. Subsequently, expression is detected in the nucleus, and remains nuclear throughout the rest of embryogenesis. Expression is detected in all nuclei in the cellular blastoderm, and maintained until gastrulation. During stage 11, expression is detected in tracheal placodes and the head anlagen, while other expression disappears. At later stages, protein expression matches that of transcript expression.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}apt13-66
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}B2-2-15
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}apt06369
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}apt09049
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\apt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 64 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of apt
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of apt
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
anterior fascicle & synapse | supernumerary, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908KU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505BK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07SI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07NY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
enhanceable
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of JAK-STAT signaling down-regulate the pathway, attenuating transcriptional control by Stat92E.
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map

2-104

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,564,891..23,599,526 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
59F1-59F4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Dcp-102132 and P{EP}aptEP2339&P{PZ}apt06369
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
59F1-59F2
(determined by in situ hybridisation) 59F3--4 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
59F1-59F2
59F3--59F4
59F-59F
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
59E1-59E1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Recombination and deficiency mapping (details unspecified) confirm cytological location.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (32)
Genomic Clones (38)
cDNA Clones (142)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: apt CG5393

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: apt l(2)06369

    Source for merge of: apt l(2)59Ea

    Source for merge of: apt l(2)k11531

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    apt is required for morphogenesis and function of the heart.

    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.

    Molecular characterisation of apt. apt protein activity enables cells to migrate during tracheal branch outgrowth and tube formation. apt activity is a prerequisite for tracheal cell migration but independent of directed cell migration in response to dpp and bnl signalling. apt function is not restricted to the tracheal system but is also required in various other embryonic tissues where the gene is expressed.

    apt is required for the elaboration of dorsal and ventral head structures. The apt protein acts in parallel to, or as a cofactor with, HOX proteins to regulate homeotic targets in the ventral gnathal region.

    Identified in a screen for modifiers of the Dfd13/Dfd3 mutant phenotype. Shows no interaction with the Pc mutant phenotype.

    Mutations isolated on the basis of having a dominant effect on the viability of flies carrying a combination of hypomorphic Dfd alleles.

    The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to identify the specific maternal effect phenotype for the zygotic lethal mutation.

    Embryonic lethal with abnormal head structures.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 79 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(2)03041
    l(2)k11531
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010526
    • FBgn0010619
    • FBgn0010654
    • FBgn0016073
    • FBgn0021909
    • FBgn0023031
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (170)