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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\grim
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
grim
Annotation Symbol
CG4345
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0015946
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
grim (grim) encodes a member of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein antagonists. In response to death signals, it induces apoptosis of cells in the central nervous system. It is important particularly for the apoptosis of specific juvenile neurons during metamorphosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:18,302,719..18,304,417 [-]
Recombination map
3-45
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    Predictions / Assertions
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    RGH PROTEINS -
    RHG proteins possess a 12 amino acid RHG motif. This motif, also known as the IAP-binding motif (IBM), interacts with the BIR domain of Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and relieving IAP-mediated caspase inhibition. Over-expression of individual RHG proteins is sufficient to induce apoptosis. (Adapted from FBrf0225510).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Activator of apoptosis, independent of rpr and hid, that acts on the effector Dredd.
    (UniProt, Q24570)
    Summary (Interactive Fly)
    pro-apoptotic protein whose N-terminus functions by disrupting IAP binding to caspases - an additional mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic function carried out by a centrally located GH3 domain
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\grim or the JBrowse view of Dmel\grim for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Gene model reviewed during 5.46
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0075130
    1699
    138
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    1.6 (northern blot)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0074896
    15.5
    138
    6.23
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 domain).
    (UniProt, Q24570)
    Crossreferences
    PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\grim using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (17 terms)
    Molecular Function (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (14 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Cellular Component (2 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    anterior endoderm anlage

    Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

    head mesoderm anlage

    Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

    antennal anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    visual anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    Additional Descriptive Data
    grim expression is almost restricted to the embryonic CNS from stage 15. They are almost completely co-localized with skl transcripts and this includes many neuroblasts in the abdominal segments of the CNS. Some co-expression with rpr was observed in neuroblasts.
    grim expression is first detected at stage 11. The pattern of expression in embryos resembles the pattern of embryonic programmed cell death. grim transcripts were also localized inside some macrophages.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    grim protein is detected in Malpighian tubules in embryos and first instar larvae, along with pro-apoptotic gene W.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\grim in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
    • Stages(s) 4-6
    • Stages(s) 9-10
    • Stages(s) 11-12
    • Stages(s) 13-16
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 32 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of grim
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of grim
    Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    sensory neuron & axon & embryo, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
    sensory neuron & axon & embryo, with Scer\GAL4repo
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190JSV )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150IDB )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
       
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      RNA-RNA
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 domain).
      (UniProt, Q24570 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-45
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3L:18,302,719..18,304,417 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      75C4-75C4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}W05014 and P{lacW}l(3)j14E7j14E7
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      75C1-75C2
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (12)
      Genomic Clones (29)
      cDNA Clones (35)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: grim BcDNA:RE28551
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of grim BcDNA:RE28551 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
      Other Comments
      The N-terminal and GH3 domains within grim activate independent apoptotic pathways.
      Domains in addition to the BIR2 domain of the th gene product are required for rpr, grim and W to inactivate th.
      rpr, W and grim promote apoptosis by disrupting interactions between the th and Dcp-1 proteins.
      th is epistatic to the mutant phenotype of Df(3L)H99 (deleted for rpr, W, and grim).
      grim may participate in initiating apoptosis by stably blocking K+ channels.
      grim expression induces apoptosis in mammalian cells by specifically acting on mitochondrial apoptotic pathways executed by endogenous caspases.
      grim-induced cell death is not modulated by Ras85D signalling activity.
      A 'cell-death gene'; activation results in massive apoptosis. Neither W nor rpr function required, but blocked by BacA\p35.
      Characterisation of grim suggests the encoded apoptotic function is upstream of putative Cys proteases and grim activity parallels that of rpr and W. Because grim triggered extensive apoptosis in at least one developmental context where rpr was not sufficient, it is possible that these proteins enter a common apoptotic pathway at different sites.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      By virtue of its proximity to rpr (reaper) and its potent cell killing activity the gene is named "grim".
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 34 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BcDNA:RE28551
      grim
      (Arya et al., 2019, Ghosh et al., 2019, Hwang et al., 2019, Lee et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Pahl et al., 2019, Pinal et al., 2019, Córdoba and Estella, 2018, Kang et al., 2018, Liu et al., 2018, Mlih et al., 2018, Mondal et al., 2018, Paul et al., 2018, Shimell et al., 2018, Chiang et al., 2017, Schott et al., 2017, Selcho et al., 2017, Tsuda et al., 2017, Bhogal et al., 2016, Hwangbo et al., 2016, Jenny and Basler, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Dwivedi et al., 2015, Elenbaas et al., 2015, Kovacs et al., 2015, Waldron et al., 2015, Wang and Baker, 2015, Wangler et al., 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Bhaskar et al., 2014, Chuang et al., 2014, Hauling et al., 2014, He et al., 2014, Parisi et al., 2014, Sha et al., 2014, Steller et al., 2014.7.9, Yang et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Lin et al., 2013, Link et al., 2013, Liu et al., 2013, Newquist et al., 2013, Pechkovsky et al., 2013, Zhang and Cohen, 2013, Davidson and Duronio, 2012, Ge et al., 2012, Lim et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Marchal et al., 2012, Parvy et al., 2012, Rovani et al., 2012, Zhai et al., 2012, Abdou et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2011, Chung et al., 2011, Gafuik and Steller, 2011, Ou et al., 2011, Suissa et al., 2011, Suska et al., 2011, Tan et al., 2011, Tapadia and Gautam, 2011, Truscott et al., 2011, Winbush and Weeks, 2011, Benitez et al., 2010, Bulchand et al., 2010, Fan et al., 2010, Karlsson et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Kerman and Andrew, 2010, Niwa et al., 2010, Pfleger et al., 2010, Riddiford et al., 2010, Sandu et al., 2010, Siegrist et al., 2010, Amarneh et al., 2009, Bidla et al., 2009, Galindo et al., 2009, González and Busturia, 2009, Hong et al., 2009, Kato et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Mallik and Lakhotia, 2009, Markovic et al., 2009, Ogura et al., 2009, Ohayon et al., 2009, Palgi et al., 2009, Peng et al., 2009, Rewitz et al., 2009, Ribaya et al., 2009, Tiwari and Roy, 2009, Wheeler et al., 2009, Xia and Holcik, 2009, Xu et al., 2009, Arya and Lakhotia, 2008, Benchabane et al., 2008, Crisp et al., 2008, Griswold et al., 2008, Gross et al., 2008, Hou et al., 2008, Liao et al., 2008, Martin et al., 2008, Mehrotra et al., 2008, Montero et al., 2008, Page and Olofsson, 2008, Poirier et al., 2008, Rogulja-Ortmann et al., 2008, Tang et al., 2008, Toyama et al., 2008, Vicente-Crespo et al., 2008, Xie and Birchler, 2008, Zhang et al., 2008, Abrams, 2007.3.27, Bidla et al., 2007, Guan et al., 2007, Hueber et al., 2007, Kertesz et al., 2007, Krieser et al., 2007, Link et al., 2007, Mabuchi et al., 2007, Peterson et al., 2007, Pfleger et al., 2007, Phan et al., 2007, Togane et al., 2007, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2007, Wichmann et al., 2007, Wu and Brachmann, 2007, Yoneda et al., 2007, Brun et al., 2006, Choi et al., 2006, Herranz et al., 2006, Kondo et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Means et al., 2006, Muro et al., 2006, Nairz et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Wichmann et al., 2006, Bauer et al., 2005, Brennecke et al., 2005, Chan et al., 2005, Leaman et al., 2005, Pearson et al., 2005, Sano et al., 2005, Waldhuber et al., 2005, Zhou, 2005, Daish et al., 2004, Hsu et al., 2004, Rehmsmeier et al., 2004, Renault et al., 2004, DiPietrantonio and Davidson, 2003, Higashiyama et al., 2002)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0064894
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (499)