General Information
Symbol
Dmel\grim
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
grim
Annotation Symbol
CG4345
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0015946
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Grim is a member of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein antagonists. In response to death signals, Grim induces apoptosis of cells in the central nervous system. Grim is important particularly for the apoptosis of specific juvenile neurons during metamorphosis. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:18,302,719..18,304,417 [-]
Recombination map
3-45
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Protein Domains/Motifs
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
RGH PROTEINS -
RHG proteins possess a 12 amino acid RHG motif. This motif, also known as the IAP-binding motif (IBM), interacts with the BIR domain of Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and relieving IAP-mediated caspase inhibition. Over-expression of individual RHG proteins is sufficient to induce apoptosis. (Adapted from FBrf0225510).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Activator of apoptosis, independent of rpr and hid, that acts on the effector Dredd.
(UniProt, Q24570)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\grim or the JBrowse view of Dmel\grim for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075130
1699
138
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.6 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074896
15.5
138
6.23
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 domain).
(UniProt, Q24570)
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\grim using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
anterior endoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

head mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

Additional Descriptive Data
grim expression is first detected at stage 11. The pattern of expression in embryos resembles the pattern of embryonic programmed cell death. grim transcripts were also localized inside some macrophages.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
grim protein is detected in Malpighian tubules in embryos and first instar larvae, along with pro-apoptotic gene W.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\grim in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of grim
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 31 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of grim
    Allele of grim
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of grim
    Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    sensory neuron & axon & embryo, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
    sensory neuron & axon & embryo, with Scer\GAL4repo
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190JSV )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150IDB )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 1 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
      RNA-RNA
      Interacting group
      Assay
      References
      protein-protein
      Interacting group
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 domain).
      (UniProt, Q24570 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-45
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3L:18,302,719..18,304,417 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      75C4-75C4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}W05014 and P{lacW}l(3)j14E7j14E7
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      75C1-75C2
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (11)
      Genomic Clones (29)
      cDNA Clones (35)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: grim BcDNA:RE28551
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of grim BcDNA:RE28551 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
      Other Comments
      The N-terminal and GH3 domains within grim activate independent apoptotic pathways.
      Domains in addition to the BIR2 domain of the th gene product are required for rpr, grim and W to inactivate th.
      rpr, W and grim promote apoptosis by disrupting interactions between the th and Dcp-1 proteins.
      th is epistatic to the mutant phenotype of Df(3L)H99 (deleted for rpr, W, and grim).
      grim may participate in initiating apoptosis by stably blocking K+ channels.
      grim expression induces apoptosis in mammalian cells by specifically acting on mitochondrial apoptotic pathways executed by endogenous caspases.
      grim-induced cell death is not modulated by Ras85D signalling activity.
      A 'cell-death gene'; activation results in massive apoptosis. Neither W nor rpr function required, but blocked by BacA\p35.
      Characterisation of grim suggests the encoded apoptotic function is upstream of putative Cys proteases and grim activity parallels that of rpr and W. Because grim triggered extensive apoptosis in at least one developmental context where rpr was not sufficient, it is possible that these proteins enter a common apoptotic pathway at different sites.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      By virtue of its proximity to rpr (reaper) and its potent cell killing activity the gene is named "grim".
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 31 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BcDNA:RE28551
      grim
      (Mlih et al., 2018, Mondal et al., 2018, Chiang et al., 2017, Tsuda et al., 2017, Bhogal et al., 2016, Hwangbo et al., 2016, Jenny and Basler, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Dwivedi et al., 2015, Elenbaas et al., 2015, Kovacs et al., 2015, Waldron et al., 2015, Wang and Baker, 2015, Wangler et al., 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Bhaskar et al., 2014, Chuang et al., 2014, Hauling et al., 2014, Parisi et al., 2014, Sha et al., 2014, Steller et al., 2014.7.9, Yang et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Lin et al., 2013, Link et al., 2013, Liu et al., 2013, Newquist et al., 2013, Pechkovsky et al., 2013, Zhang and Cohen, 2013, Davidson and Duronio, 2012, Ge et al., 2012, Lim et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Marchal et al., 2012, Parvy et al., 2012, Rovani et al., 2012, Zhai et al., 2012, Abdou et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2011, Chung et al., 2011, Gafuik and Steller, 2011, Ou et al., 2011, Suissa et al., 2011, Suska et al., 2011, Tan et al., 2011, Tapadia and Gautam, 2011, Truscott et al., 2011, Winbush and Weeks, 2011, Benitez et al., 2010, Bulchand et al., 2010, Fan et al., 2010, Karlsson et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Kerman and Andrew, 2010, Niwa et al., 2010, Pfleger et al., 2010, Riddiford et al., 2010, Sandu et al., 2010, Siegrist et al., 2010, Amarneh et al., 2009, Bidla et al., 2009, Galindo et al., 2009, González and Busturia, 2009, Hong et al., 2009, Kato et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Mallik and Lakhotia, 2009, Markovic et al., 2009, Ogura et al., 2009, Ohayon et al., 2009, Palgi et al., 2009, Peng et al., 2009, Rewitz et al., 2009, Ribaya et al., 2009, Tiwari and Roy, 2009, Wheeler et al., 2009, Xia and Holcik, 2009, Xu et al., 2009, Arya and Lakhotia, 2008, Benchabane et al., 2008, Crisp et al., 2008, Griswold et al., 2008, Gross et al., 2008, Hou et al., 2008, Liao et al., 2008, Martin et al., 2008, Mehrotra et al., 2008, Montero et al., 2008, Page and Olofsson, 2008, Poirier et al., 2008, Rogulja-Ortmann et al., 2008, Tang et al., 2008, Toyama et al., 2008, Vicente-Crespo et al., 2008, Xie and Birchler, 2008, Zhang et al., 2008, Abrams, 2007.3.27, Bidla et al., 2007, Guan et al., 2007, Hueber et al., 2007, Kertesz et al., 2007, Krieser et al., 2007, Link et al., 2007, Mabuchi et al., 2007, Peterson et al., 2007, Pfleger et al., 2007, Phan et al., 2007, Togane et al., 2007, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2007, Wichmann et al., 2007, Wu and Brachmann, 2007, Yoneda et al., 2007, Brun et al., 2006, Choi et al., 2006, Herranz et al., 2006, Kondo et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Means et al., 2006, Muro et al., 2006, Nairz et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Wichmann et al., 2006, Bauer et al., 2005, Brennecke et al., 2005, Chan et al., 2005, Leaman et al., 2005, Pearson et al., 2005, Sano et al., 2005, Waldhuber et al., 2005, Zhou, 2005, Daish et al., 2004, Hsu et al., 2004, Rehmsmeier et al., 2004, Renault et al., 2004, DiPietrantonio and Davidson, 2003, Higashiyama et al., 2002)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0064894
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (473)