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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\side
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sidestep
Annotation Symbol
CG31062
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0016061
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
sidestep (side) encodes a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in a defined spatiotemporal pattern in glial cells, sensory neurons and muscles. It functions as an attractive guidance cue to guide motor axons to their target regions. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:27,375,088..27,437,482 [-]
Recombination map
3-93
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SIDE FAMILY -
SIDE is a closely related family encoding immunoglobulin superfamily proteins. They can interact with BEAT family members. Interactions between side and beat-Ia have been shown to play a role in the control of motor axon guidance. (Adapted from FBrf0207934 and FBrf0222007).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Ig domain cell adhesion molecule - ligand for Beaten path Ia - axon guidance
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\side or the JBrowse view of Dmel\side for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.40
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085168
5651
939
FBtr0289998
11301
929
FBtr0309179
5059
986
FBtr0309180
6074
943
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084538
101.7
939
5.71
FBpp0288437
100.5
929
6.26
FBpp0301133
106.6
986
5.71
FBpp0301134
102.1
943
5.71
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\side using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (1 term)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
side is expressed dynamically in neurons and muscles during embryogenesis. It is a cell surface marker that appears to direct the path of motor axons. At embryonic stage 12, side is expressed in a belt-like pattern along the ventral midline. The aCC neuron develops next to side-expressing cells. By stage 13, the side pattern has turned into a triangular pattern, with tips pointing away from the midline. The motor axons of the intersegmental nerve project along the anterior edge of each triangle. Axons of the segmental nerve grow along the posterior edge. The motor axons are guided directly toward the exit junction and ganglionic branch of the trachea. At the trachea, motor axons fasciculate with side-positive afferent sensory axons exactly at the lateral bidendritic neuron. When the intersegmental nerve has reached the end of the sensory tracks at the bidendritic neurons, side expression in the sensory neurons is not still detectable but instead is observed in muscle fibers. The side-expressing muscles are thought to attract the motor neurons, thus causing them to leave the sensory tracks. In general, cells and tissues located ahead of motor neuron growth cones express side.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\side in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of side
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of side
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
growth cone & intersegmental nerve (with sideC137)
growth cone & intersegmental nerve (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal acute muscle 1 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal acute muscle 1 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal acute muscle 2 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal acute muscle 2 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal oblique muscle 1 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal oblique muscle 1 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal oblique muscle 2 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal dorsal oblique muscle 2 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 1 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 1 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 2 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 2 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 3 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 3 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 4 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal lateral transverse muscle 4 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral acute muscle 1 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral acute muscle 1 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral acute muscle 2 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral acute muscle 2 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral acute muscle 3 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral acute muscle 3 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 1 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 1 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 2 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 2 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 3 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 3 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 4 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral longitudinal muscle 4 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral oblique muscle 4 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral oblique muscle 4 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral oblique muscle 5 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral oblique muscle 5 (with sideI1563)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral oblique muscle 6 (with sideC137)
larval neuromuscular junction & abdominal ventral oblique muscle 6 (with sideI1563)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
 
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919021C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501MQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01AV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X018V )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G04T1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (17)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-93
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:27,375,088..27,437,482 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    97F6-98A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sda03884 and P{PZ}btzrL203
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    98A1-98A2
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (17)
    Genomic Clones (49)
    cDNA Clones (3)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Annotations CG12510, CG13975, CG13979 merged as CG31062 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
        Other Comments
        side is essential for motor axons to leave the motor nerves and enter their muscle targets.
        Mutant alleles are defective in motor neuron defasciculation.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 45 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (73)