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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\smg
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
smaug
Annotation Symbol
CG5263
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0016070
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
smaug (smg) encodes the founding member of the SMAUG family of sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins. During the maternal-to-zygotic transition in early embryos, the smg product inhibits the translation and induces the degradation of hundreds of maternal mRNAs by recruitment of the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, thereby controlling embryonic patterning, activation of zygotic transcription, and early embryonic cell cycles. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Also Known As
D69
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:8,990,317..8,997,989 [-]
Recombination map
3-28
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the SMAUG family. (Q23972)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Translation regulator that binds to the 3'-UTR of specific mRNAs such as nanos (nos) and prevents their translation. Prevents translation of unlocalized nos in the bulk cytoplasm via the recruitment of cup.
(UniProt, Q23972)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
RNA binding protein - repressor of translation - required for cleavage-independent maternal transcript destruction during the Drosophila MZT
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\smg or the JBrowse view of Dmel\smg for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076550
4670
999
FBtr0076549
4624
999
FBtr0076551
4562
999
FBtr0290103
4927
1109
FBtr0290104
4465
999
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076277
109.1
999
7.46
FBpp0076276
109.1
999
7.46
FBpp0076278
109.1
999
7.46
FBpp0288542
120.7
1109
7.19
FBpp0288543
109.1
999
7.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

999 aa isoforms: smg-PA, smg-PB, smg-PC, smg-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with oskar (osk). Binds to the 3'-UTR of nos. Interacts with cup, which in turn recruits eIF4-E, leading to an indirect interaction between smg and eIF4-E that prevents mRNA translation. Forms a complex with aub, twin, AGO3, nos mRNA and piRNAs that targets the nos 3'-untranslated region, in early embryos.
(UniProt, Q23972)
Domain
The SAM domain mediates the association with the 3'-UTR of specific mRNAs.
(UniProt, Q23972)
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\smg using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (13 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Myo10A; FB:FBgn0263705
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000282210
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000282210
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000282210
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000282210
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000282210
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR015327
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000282210
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
smg protein levels as seen on western blots progressively increase through the early cleavage divisions, peak during syncytial blastoderm cycles 10-13, and then dramatically decline during interphase of cycle 14.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\smg in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 14 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of smg
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of smg
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902CQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915033F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06LM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06H8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with oskar (osk). Binds to the 3'-UTR of nos. Interacts with cup, which in turn recruits eIF4-E, leading to an indirect interaction between smg and eIF4-E that prevents mRNA translation. Forms a complex with aub, twin, AGO3, nos mRNA and piRNAs that targets the nos 3'-untranslated region, in early embryos.
    (UniProt, Q23972 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-28
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:8,990,317..8,997,989 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    66F1-66F1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0162901629&P{PZ}mRpL1210534 and P{EP}Hsp26EP3336&P{EP}Hsp26EP3315
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (7)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (247)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: smg anon-D69
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of smg anon-D69 was sequence comparison ( date:000202 ).
      Other Comments
      smg protein interacts with AGO1 protein, and AGO1 protein interacts with and is required for the translational repression of the smg target, nos mRNA. The AGO1 protein/nos mRNA interaction does not require a miRNA, but does require msg protein.
      smg is a major regulator of maternal mRNA destabilization.
      smg operates a translational switch that governs the distribution of nos protein in the embryo.
      Protein products binds nos translation element 1 (NTE1), preventing translation and promoting nos mRNA degradation.
      smg protein was identified on the basis of specifically binding nos mRNA and represses translation of unlocalized nos mRNA in the embryo. Two SREs (smg Response elements) map to the nos 3' UTR.
      Cloned by ability to arrest the cell cycle when expressed in the fission yeast S.pombe.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 60 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010432
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (155)