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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\stnB
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
stoned B
Annotation Symbol
CG12473
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0016975
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
stn, stoned, stn-B
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:22,980,722..23,004,648 [-]
Recombination map
1-66
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Stoned B family. (Q24212)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
STONINS -
The stoned proteins, stoned A and B, are encoded by a dicistronic locus in insecta. They are structurally different, but both contain motifs that are found in adaptor proteins. The stoned proteins are believed to act in synaptic vesicle recycling pathways. (Adapted from FBrf0139751 and FBrf0209527).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Adapter protein involved in endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicles membranes. May act by mediating the retrieval of synaptotagmin protein Syt from the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating the internalization of multiple synaptic vesicles from the plasma membrane.
(UniProt, Q24212)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
stn: stoned (J.C. Hall)
Exists as temperature-sensitive behavioral, temperature-sensitive lethal, and unconditionally lethal alleles. Severe behavioral debilitation is quickly induced by shift of adult stn6 and stn7 from 25 to 29; abnormalities at high temperature include uncoordinated leg and wing movements, with complete paralysis never occurring (e.g., legs still move); stn6 causes some debilitation at 22 (slow movements, occasionally falling over); whereas stn7 is more nearly normal at low temperatures, and can even walk with difficulty at 29; at permissive temperatures, stn (allele unspecified) causes unusual jump response to light-off stimulus, which is more pronounced in combination with w (Kelly, 1983b); associated with this abnormal jumping is an increase in amplitude of light-off transient spike of electroretinogram (ERG); in tests of light-adapted mutant, the jump response, as monitored by recordings from indirect flight muscles, habituates with increasing frequencies of light-off stimulation (Kelly, 1983b); combining stn with tan, which by itself leads to decreased amplitude of ERG on and off transients, leads to loss of anomalous jumping and partial restoration of light-off spike. In biochemical experiments, stn (allele unspecified) found to cause accentuation of in vivo phosphorylation of a protein from adult head synaptosomal fractions that is modified in this way by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase, with such phosphorylation being enhanced by exposure of flies to light, prior to extraction (Kelly, 1983a). A protein, which has same molecular weight as the one noted above, found to be phosphorylated in vitro by a fly-derived Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; stn causes increased levels of in vivo phosphorylation of this material (Kelly, 1983b). The temperature-sensitive lethal allele, stn, leads to brief paralysis, followed by sporadic movements, as a result of mechanical shocking (Homyk and Sheppard, 1977, Genetics 87: 95-104); other abnormalities include abnormally short jump and flight distances, apparent absence of on and off transients in ERG, and lethality when raised at 29. Effects of three of the lethal alleles, stn1, stn11, and stn14, were examined during development for effects on gross anatomy of CNS or PNS; no obvious abnormalities were observed (Perrimon et al., 1989).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
a dicistronic locus encoding two proteins involved in synaptic vesicle recycling
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\stnB or the JBrowse view of Dmel\stnB for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
gene_with_dicistronic_mRNA ; SO:0000722
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Gene model reviewed during 5.54
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302020
8270
1262
FBtr0302021
8144
1262
FBtr0344111
8332
1262
FBtr0344466
8207
1241
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
8.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291230
137.8
1262
4.34
FBpp0291231
137.8
1262
4.34
FBpp0310530
137.8
1262
4.34
FBpp0310837
135.4
1241
4.34
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1262 aa isoforms: stnB-PE, stnB-PF, stnB-PG
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1260 (aa); 138 (kD observed)
Comments
Unlike the stnA protein, the mobility of the stnB protein is not altered under reducing conditions. The stnB protein shows limited homology to the rat AP50 subunit of the clathrin-associated protein AP2 complex.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with the second C2 domain of Syt.
(UniProt, Q24212)
Domain
The Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF) motifs, which are found in proteins involved in the endocytic pathway, are known to interact with the EH domain.
(UniProt, Q24212)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\stnB using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (13 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P21521
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24211
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002575694
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Syt1; FB:FBgn0004242
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Syb; FB:FBgn0003660
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Csp; FB:FBgn0004179
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Syt1; FB:FBgn0004242
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The stnB protein is detected at high levels in the adult head, and at much lower levels in the thorax and abdomen.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Syt1; FB:FBgn0004242
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Syb; FB:FBgn0003660
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Csp; FB:FBgn0004179
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Syt1; FB:FBgn0004242
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\stnB in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of stnB
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of stnB
Deletions and Duplications ( 63 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
5 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901R4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915011W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00UN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00TB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0GC2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with the second C2 domain of Syt.
    (UniProt, Q24212 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-66
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:22,980,722..23,004,648 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    20F3-20F3
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (6)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (176)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      One or more of the processed transcripts for this gene contain(s) two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). The non-overlapping ORFs are represented by stnA and stnB.
      Other Comments
      Rescue analysis suggests that the stnB open reading frame (ORF) encodes all vital and important functions of the dicistronic "stn" locus and that the stnA ORF encodes a dispensible protein. However, this interpretation is limited by the absence of a true null for "stn" due to partial rescue of presynaptic stnA protein by transgenically provided stnB protein.
      Neuronal expression of a dicistronic "stn" transcript (encoding both stnA and stnB proteins) is sufficient to rescue various phenotypic defects of "stn" mutants, including lethality and defects in evoked transmitter release and syt protein localisation at the nerve terminals. In addition, neural expression of a monocistronic stnB transgene is sufficient to rescue all these defects. In contrast, neural expression of a monocistronic stnA transgene does not rescue any of the "stn" mutant phenotypes. In addition, "stn" is required for regulating normal growth and morphology of the motor terminal, and this function is also provided by a monocistronic stnB transgene.
      "stn" mutants show a striking decrease in the size of the endo-exo-cycling synaptic vesicle pool and loss of spatial regulation of the vesicular recycling intermediates. Mutant synapses display a significant delay in vesicular membrane retrieval after depolarisation and neurotransmitter release.
      Expression analysis suggests that mutation in the first open reading frame, stnA, of the stoned dicistronic transcript renders the second reading frame, stnB, unreadable.
      The stnA and stnB proteins are essential for the recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane and are required for the proper sorting of the syt gene product during endocytosis.
      The 'stoned' locus produces a dicistronic transcript and encodes two distinct polypeptides. The structure of the protein encoded by the stnB ORF suggests a possible role in membrane trafficking, allowing an interpretation of the interaction seen between temperature sensitive 'stoned' and shi mutants.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 44 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (77)