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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\toy
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
twin of eyeless
Annotation Symbol
CG11186
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0019650
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
twin of eyeless (toy) encodes a transcription factor that is involved in eye development as part of the retinal determination gene network, and contributes to formation of the central nervous system. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

l(4)8, l(4)102CDg

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
4:989,725..1,007,922 [+]
Recombination map

4-0

RefSeq locus
NC_004353 REGION:989725..1007922
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PAIRED HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Paired homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They have a characteristic paired domain in association with the homeodomain. (Adapted from FBrf0135231 and PMID:1672661).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\toy or the JBrowse view of Dmel\toy for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0243886.

Gene model reviewed during 6.32

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089185
2287
543
FBtr0339509
3870
526
FBtr0479793
3921
655
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.8, 2.7, 2.4 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088249
59.2
543
8.80
FBpp0308592
57.5
526
8.80
FBpp0428126
71.3
655
9.45
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\toy using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

toy transcript is detected in the embryonic protocerebrum, in the cells which will form the mushroom bodies.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: deuterocerebrum - d3, d6, d8; protocerebrum - ad15, av1, cd1-7, cd9, cd11-14, cd17-21, cv6-9, pd1-20, pv2, pv3

<e> is <t> E | stage 5 <a> procephalic neurogenic region <s> <note>

<e> is <t> E | stage 6-17 <a> procephalic neuroblast <s> <note>

<e> is <t> E | stage 12-17 <a> embryonic brain <s> <note>

<e> is <t> E | stage 12-17 <a> embryonic ventral neuromere | segmentally repeated <s> <note>

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

toy-protein is expressed in distal cells of the larval optic anlage.

toy and oc colocalize in the embryonic eye primordium.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: deuterocerebrum - d3, d6, d8; protocerebrum - ad15, av1, cd1-7, cd9, cd11-14, cd17-21, cv6-9, pd1-20, pv2, pv3

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{toy-lacZ.EEP}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\toy in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 9 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of toy
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of toy
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
leg & eye | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1
wing & eye | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (34)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2  
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
2  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (34)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
3  
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (15)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (23)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (34)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (14)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906L6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503QS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0HDL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0HFF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0S4E )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (15)
6 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 7 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    4
    Recombination map

    4-0

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    4:989,725..1,007,922 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    102F4-102F5
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    102E1-102E1
    102E1-102E1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Maps close to ey.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (8)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (127)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: l(4)102CDg toy

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      The pupal lethality of toy mutants is caused by cell loss due to apoptosis.

      toy induces expression of dac.

      toy is crucial at the very beginning of eye-antennal development in the primordia of eye-antennal discs. toy also has parallel and partially redundant functions with ey.

      A single amino acid substitution in the ey protein is able to change the DNA-binding affinity of its paired domain to that of toy.

      toy acts upstream of ey in the control of eye development. Despite the similarity in structure and expression of toy and ey, normal expression of toy cannot compensate for the loss of ey function.

      In the embryonic head, so acts in parallel to ey and toy.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 91 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      toy
      (FlyBase Genome Annotators, 2020, Meyer-Nava et al., 2020, Curt et al., 2019, FlyBase Genome Annotators, 2019-, Gaspar et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Ariss et al., 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Palliyil et al., 2018, Yeung et al., 2018, Zhu et al., 2018, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Zhu et al., 2017, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Skottheim Honn et al., 2016, Doggett et al., 2015, Enriquez et al., 2015, model organism Encyclopedia of Regulatory Network (modERN) Project, 2015-, Schertel et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Blaquiere et al., 2014, Naval-Sánchez et al., 2013, Southall et al., 2013, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Riddle et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Takaesu et al., 2012, Wang and Sun, 2012, Brockmann et al., 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Friedrich and Caravas, 2011, Gehring, 2011, Gehring, 2011, Michaut et al., 2011, Papadopoulos et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Baig et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2010, Frise et al., 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Popov et al., 2010, Salzer and Kumar, 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Furukubo-Tokunaga et al., 2009, Jacobsson et al., 2009, Schuettengruber et al., 2009, Weasner et al., 2009, Anderson and Kumar, 2008, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Jacobsson et al., 2008, Pfeiffer et al., 2008, Weasner and Kumar, 2008, Yao et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Kumar and Datta, 2007, Kumar and Luhur, 2007, Kumar and Salzer, 2007, Kumar and Weanser, 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Weasner et al., 2007, Anderson et al., 2006, Choksi et al., 2006, Friedrich, 2006, Oakley et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Brown and Feder, 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Podemski et al., 2004, Punzo et al., 2004, Stanyon et al., 2004, Onuma et al., 2002)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0004523
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (212)