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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pkn
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Protein kinase N
Annotation Symbol
CG2049
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0020621
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Protein kinase N (Pkn) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase activated by Rho family GTPases, especially those encoded by Rho1 and Rac1. When activated, the product of Pkn regulates the actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis, wound repair, and in morphogenetic events including dorsal closure and wing development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

l(2)06736, l(2)45Ca, Protein kinase related to protein kinase N, Dpkn, 3-2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:9,252,310..9,285,097 [-]
Recombination map
2-60
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:9252310..9285097
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (17 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P40792
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P48148
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P48554
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000683254
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR037313
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in dorsal closure
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in dorsal closure
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000683254
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000683254
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (A1Z7T0)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Protein kinase N (Pkn) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase activated by Rho family GTPases, especially those encoded by Rho1 and Rac1. When activated, the product of Pkn regulates the actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis, wound repair, and in morphogenetic events including dorsal closure and wing development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
AGC KINASES (UNCLASSIFIED) -
The AGC kinase subfamily are serine/threonine kinases that were originally defined based on the sequence similarity of the catalytic domain. The AGC KINASE (UNCLASSIFIED) gene group represents AGC kinases that do not fall into the PKA, PKC or PKG families. (Adapted from FBrf0132098 and PMID:20027184).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Pkc-related serine/threonine-protein kinase and Rho/Rac effector protein that participates in specific signal transduction responses in the cell. May play a role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, actin cytoskeleton assembly, cell migration, cell adhesion and transcription activation signaling processes (By similarity). Plays a role in regulating Rho-mediated dorsal closure during embryogenesis.
(UniProt, A1Z7T0)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
16
Number of Unique Polypeptides
14

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pkn for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Gene model reviewed during 6.05

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088601
5747
1190
FBtr0088602
4872
1407
FBtr0088604
6520
1422
FBtr0088605
3617
590
FBtr0088603
5869
1205
FBtr0112897
6552
1501
FBtr0301511
5901
1284
FBtr0302603
4970
1275
FBtr0302604
6111
1354
FBtr0306585
4562
1275
FBtr0308206
4431
1260
FBtr0339290
5082
1477
FBtr0339291
4152
1167
FBtr0339292
4491
1280
FBtr0339293
4485
1278
FBtr0433506
4490
1354
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087682
131.8
1190
6.92
FBpp0087683
156.4
1407
6.37
FBpp0087685
158.1
1422
6.65
FBpp0087686
66.3
590
5.06
FBpp0087684
133.5
1205
7.43
FBpp0111810
166.8
1501
6.61
FBpp0290726
142.2
1284
7.30
FBpp0291759
141.1
1275
6.64
FBpp0291760
149.8
1354
6.60
FBpp0297540
141.1
1275
6.64
FBpp0300526
139.3
1260
6.30
FBpp0308399
163.9
1477
5.92
FBpp0308400
129.5
1167
6.95
FBpp0308401
141.7
1280
6.49
FBpp0308402
141.5
1278
6.49
FBpp0390638
149.8
1354
6.60
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1275 aa isoforms: Pkn-PJ, Pkn-PL
1354 aa isoforms: Pkn-PK, Pkn-PS
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts (via N-terminus) with Rho1 (via REM repeats), Rac1 (via REM 1 repeat) and Rac2.

(UniProt, A1Z7T0)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated (By similarity). Autophosphorylated; autophosphorylation is stimulated by GTP-bound Rho/Rac GTPases.

(UniProt, A1Z7T0)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pkn using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pkn in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 41 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 24 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Pkn
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Pkn
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 20 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
3 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
2 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900YU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915011Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00UP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00TD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00YT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (12)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts (via N-terminus) with Rho1 (via REM repeats), Rac1 (via REM 1 repeat) and Rac2.
    (UniProt, A1Z7T0 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-60
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:9,252,310..9,285,097 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    45C1-45C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}CG8788k04512&P{lacW}l(2)k13412k13412 and P{PZ}Pkn06736 45C1 Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338) Right limit from inclusion within Df(2R)w73-1 (FBrf0089219) Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0048100) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0048100)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    45C1-45C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 45C3--4 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    45C-45C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    45C1-45C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (27)
    Genomic Clones (32)
    cDNA Clones (116)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Pkn l(2)06736 Pk45C

    Source for merge of: CG2049 CG2055

    Source for merge of: Pkn CG2049

    Source for merge of: Pkn v(2)rG232

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG2049, CG2055 merged as CG2049 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

    Other Comments

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

    Shows particularly robust cycling of transcription in adult heads, as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated during three 12-point time course experiments over the course of 6 days.

    Pkn is required specifically for epidermal shape changes during the morphogenetic process of dorsal closure in the developing embryo. Together with Rho1, Pkn mediates a pathway for cell shape changes in dorsal closure that is independent of the Rac GTPase-mediated Jun amino (N)-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade.

    Pkn has been cloned and sequenced, and its expression pattern has been analysed.

    Isolated from a genomic library using a Pka-C1 probe.

    Pkn may encode a protein kinase.

    Gene in D.melanogaster encoding product related (by sequence comparison) to the serine-threonine protein kinases of mammals. Isolated from Drosophila clones obtained with mammalian probes.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 121 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CG2055
    PKC-related
    Pk45C
    Pk?3
    v(2)rG232
    Name Synonyms
    Complementation group 8
    Protein kinase related to protein kinase N
    Protein kinase-like 45C
    protein kinase c related
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004459
    • FBgn0010625
    • FBgn0015480
    • FBgn0028556
    • FBgn0033398
    • FBgn0033399
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (129)