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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mira
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
miranda
Annotation Symbol
CG12249
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0021776
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
miranda (mira) encodes a cytoplasmic and cortical scaffolding protein that binds the products of pros, stau and brat. It is asymmetrically localized to the basal cortex during neuroblast asymmetric cell division, resulting in its partioning into GMC daughter cells, where it is degraded and releases its cargo proteins. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

Mir

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:19,931,799..19,935,120 [-]
Recombination map

3-67

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:19931799..19935120
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (25 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:jar; FB:FBgn0011225
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:flfl; FB:FBgn0024555
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:stau; FB:FBgn0003520
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with aster
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    scaffold protein - required for subcellular localization of Prospero - a target of the asymmetric cell division machinery - involved in the generation of cell diversity in the CNS - coordinates the subcellular distribution of cell-fate determinants including Staufen and Brain tumor - asymmetrically localized to the basal cortex during neuroblast asymmetric cell division, resulting in its partitioning into GMC daughter cells, where it is degraded and releases its cargo proteins

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    3
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    3

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\mira for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.47

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0083847
    2965
    829
    FBtr0083848
    3232
    799
    FBtr0335243
    2893
    805
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    3.5, 3.4 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0083256
    93.1
    829
    5.75
    FBpp0083257
    89.8
    799
    5.85
    FBpp0307230
    90.5
    805
    5.85
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
     
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mira using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    neuroblast

    Comment: asymetrically distributed

    dorsal ectoderm anlage

    Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

    ventral ectoderm anlage

    Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

    antennal anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    visual anlage in statu nascendi

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

    antennal anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    central brain anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    dorsal head epidermis anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    visual anlage

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

    Additional Descriptive Data

    miranda transcripts are detected in early embryos at stage 3. They start to accumulate in the procephalic and neurogenic regions starting in embryonic stage 8. They are observed in delaminating neuroblasts, in the posterior midgut primordia, and in SOP cells in the developing PNS. After germ band retraction, they remain only in the brain lobes and in the ventral region of the ventral nerve cord where cell divisions continue to take place. miranda is expressed in neuroblasts, SOP cells, and cells in the PNS at the time of asymmetric cell division and pros localization.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    No Assay Recorded
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    embryonic neuroblast

    Comment: localized in a dense basal cresent as cells enter mitosis

    embryonic neuroblast

    Comment: localized in a diffuse apical cresent in mitotic cells

    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    western blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    ovary

    Comment: prior to stage S10B

    Additional Descriptive Data

    At late interphase stage, miranda protein forms a crescent on the apical cortex of neuroblasts. Later in mitosis, it forms a crescent on the basal cortex. The asymmetric localization of miranda protein during mitosis was shown to be an actin-dependent process.

    mira is used as a marker for neuroblasts undergoing asymmetric cell division.

    mira protein is expressed in the larval brain neuroblasts and GMCs, co-localising with MAGE protein.

    The protein is detected as a uniform single band on western blots during all stages of development and all tissues tested that include several embryonic stages, larvae, pupae, male and female adults, ovaries, testes, imaginal discs and brain.

    miranda protein is detected in early embryos in the ectoderm but not in the mesodermal primordium. During neurogenesis, it is expressed in neuroblasts, in midgut stem cells in the endoderm, and in SOP cells in the developing PNS. All of these cells also synthesize and segregate pros protein to one of two daughter cells during asymmetric divisions.

    miranda protein starts to accumulate in the procephalic and neurogenic regions starting in embryonic stage 8. It is observed in delaminating neuroblasts, cells in the posterior midgut primordia, and SOP cells in the developing PNS. After germ band retraction, it remains only in the brain lobes and in the ventral region of the ventral nerve cord.

    Marker for
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    colocalizes_with aster
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    Reporter: M{mira-mGFP6}
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\mira in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
    • Stages(s) 4-6
    • Stages(s) 7-8
    • Stages(s) 9-10
    • Stages(s) 11-12
    • Stages(s) 13-16
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 23 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 35 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mira
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mira
    Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
    1 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903SK )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504W6 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-67

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:19,931,799..19,935,120 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    92B9-92B9
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    92C-92C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (8)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (398)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

      mira protein localization in embryonic neuroblasts requires jar.

      mira and pros seem to be upstream of gcm in the cascade of cell fate decision in the NB6-4T lineage. mira and insc are required for the correct cortical location of pros protein in NB6-4T.

      mira localises pros and stau asymmetrically in mitotic neuroblasts and epithelial cells in early embryogenesis.

      mira is required for the correct localisation of stau protein and pros mRNA.

      mira protein contains multiple functional domains: an amino-terminal asymmetric localisation domain which interacts with insc protein, a central numb interaction domain, and a more carboxy-terminal pros interaction domain. mira function is required for asymmetrical localisation of stau protein.

      mira protein interacts directly with the pros gene product, directs pros to the GMC daughter cell during asymmetric divisions, tethers pros protein to the basal cortex of mitotic neuroblasts, and releases pros from the cell cortex within the GMCs.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      The gene is named after Miranda, Prospero's daughter and companion in exile in "The Tempest".

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 41 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Mira
      (Gangwani et al., 2020, Liu et al., 2020, Bridi et al., 2019, Curt et al., 2019, Hannaford et al., 2019, Link et al., 2019, Liu et al., 2019, Pham et al., 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Carmena, 2018, Hakes et al., 2018, Golub et al., 2017, Mukherjee et al., 2016, Yadav et al., 2016, Zacharioudaki et al., 2016, Loedige et al., 2015, Eroglu et al., 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Mauri et al., 2014, Chai et al., 2013, Goh et al., 2013, Kohwi et al., 2013, Li, 2013, Lu and Johnston, 2013, Morante et al., 2013, Noatynska et al., 2013, Rujano et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, Andersen et al., 2012, Homem and Knoblich, 2012, Oyallon et al., 2012, Song and Lu, 2012, Xiao et al., 2012, Yoshiura et al., 2012, Zhu et al., 2012, Boyan and Williams, 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Kohwi et al., 2011, Morante et al., 2011, Nance and Zallen, 2011, Ouyang et al., 2011, Sabino et al., 2011, San-Juán and Baonza, 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Weng and Lee, 2011, Grant et al., 2010, Januschke and Gonzalez, 2010, Kitajima et al., 2010, Krahn et al., 2010, Siegrist et al., 2010, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2010, Cabernard and Doe, 2009, Chabu and Doe, 2009, Fichelson et al., 2009, Johnston et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009, Krahn et al., 2009, Newman and Prehoda, 2009, Ogawa et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Basto et al., 2008, Boone and Doe, 2008, Bowman et al., 2008, Giansanti et al., 2008, Maurange et al., 2008, Perdigoto et al., 2008, Wirtz-Peitz et al., 2008, Atwood et al., 2007, Bello et al., 2007, Bonaccorsi et al., 2007, Egger et al., 2007, Hayden et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Bello et al., 2006, Bowman et al., 2006, Siegrist and Doe, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wodarz and Gonzalez, 2006, Wang et al., 2005, Yu et al., 2002)
      Name Synonyms
      Miranda
      (Kono et al., 2019, Hakes et al., 2018, Mukherjee et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Bajaj et al., 2015, Bell et al., 2015, Schweisguth, 2015, Gardiol and St Johnston, 2014, Culurgioni and Mapelli, 2013, Fuse et al., 2013, Goh et al., 2013, Rujano et al., 2013, Andersen et al., 2012, Berger et al., 2012, Homem and Knoblich, 2012, Ulvklo et al., 2012, Chang et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2011, Finan et al., 2011, Kohwi et al., 2011, Morante et al., 2011, Ouyang et al., 2011, Richter et al., 2011, Sabino et al., 2011, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Godin et al., 2010, Grant et al., 2010, Januschke and Gonzalez, 2010, Kitajima et al., 2010, Krahn et al., 2010, Morais-de-Sá et al., 2010, Siegrist et al., 2010, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2010, Weng et al., 2010, Atwood and Prehoda, 2009, Chabu and Doe, 2009, Fichelson et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009, Ogawa et al., 2009, Pisa et al., 2009, Read et al., 2009, Albornoz et al., 2008, Basto et al., 2008, Bello et al., 2008, Benetka et al., 2008, Boone and Doe, 2008, Chabu and Doe, 2008, Chia et al., 2008, Erben et al., 2008, Kaplow et al., 2008, Krahn and Wodarz, 2008, Lin, 2008, Nishimura et al., 2008, Perdigoto et al., 2008, Rusan et al., 2008, Siller and Doe, 2008, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2008, Tsuji et al., 2008, Wirtz-Peitz et al., 2008, Wirtz-Peitz et al., 2008, Yamamoto et al., 2008, Yamashita and Fuller, 2008, Yousef et al., 2008, Zhu et al., 2008, Atwood et al., 2007, Bonaccorsi et al., 2007, Hayden et al., 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Ottone et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Beckingham et al., 2006, Bello et al., 2006, Betschinger et al., 2006, Bowman et al., 2006, Ceron et al., 2006, Irion et al., 2006, Izumi et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Slack et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Ahringer, 2005, Chotard et al., 2005, Hampoelz et al., 2005, Siegrist and Doe, 2005, Yamashita et al., 2005, Albertson et al., 2004, Harris and Peifer, 2004, Petritsch et al., 2003, Yu et al., 2002, Dawes-Hoang and Wieschaus, 2001, Ohshiro et al., 2001, Peng et al., 2000, Ikeshima-Kataoka, 1997.7.10)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (377)