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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pka-R2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory subunit type 2
Annotation Symbol
CG15862
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0022382
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase (3.1.4.35)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
PKA, RII, pka-RII, Cos, Cos1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:9,993,890..10,026,042 [-]
Recombination map
2-61
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family. (P81900)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H(2)O = guanosine 5'-phosphate (3.1.4.35)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells (PubMed:10781603, PubMed:9196067). Mediates membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, such as Akap200 (PubMed:9196067, PubMed:12223401). Might play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain (PubMed:10781603, PubMed:9196067).
(UniProt, P81900)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Cos: Costal (P. Simpson)
Mirror-image duplications of wings and halteres; duplications of wing begin in mid-costal region and may include entire anterior compartment; posterior compartments unaffected, even when transformed into anterior compartments in en homozygotes. Penetrance of Cos higher when maternally than when paternally inherited. Class I alleles are homozygous viable and display pattern duplications in both heterozygotes and homozygotes. Penetrance and expressivity variable and may overlap wild type. Class II alleles are lethal when homozygous or in heteroallelic combination with one another; they sometimes display pattern duplications in heterozygotes. Class III alleles are homozygous lethal and have no dominant phenotype. Flies heterozygous for alleles of any of the three classes display the phenotype when simultaneously heterozygous for lethal alleles or deletions of cos; the heterozygous expression of Cos is dependent on the number of cos+ alleles present, with the severity of wing duplication decreasing as the number of cos+ alleles increases from one to three. Flies heterozygous for Cos and homozygous or hemizygous for some viable alleles of cos die as pharate adults and display pattern duplications in the anterior compartment of every body segment. Homozygotes of class II and IIIK alleles die as embryos with abnormal cuticular patterns; failure to develop of variable extents of the anterior end of the embryo, i.e. head or head and thorax, as well as mirror image duplications of anterior denticle belts of abdominal segments, or more frequently simply disturbed denticle polarity. Embryos that are simultaneously homozygous for cosV alleles and Cos3 are more severely affected, with some exhibiting a bicaudal phenotype. cosV1 Cos2/Df(2R)CA58 flies survive poorly, but show pattern duplications in the anterior compartments of all segments. Revertants of Cos are viable and wild type in phenotype; as they are presumably null alleles, Cos mutations are presumed to be gain of function alleles.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Pka-R2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pka-R2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088437
2157
377
FBtr0088438
4108
377
FBtr0112901
1614
373
FBtr0112902
2102
376
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.038 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087523
42.7
377
4.58
FBpp0087524
42.7
377
4.58
FBpp0111814
42.4
373
4.53
FBpp0111815
42.6
376
4.56
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

377 aa isoforms: Pka-R2-PA, Pka-R2-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Tetramer, composed of 2 regulatory (R) and 2 catalytic (C) subunits (PubMed:9196067). In the presence of cAMP it dissociates into 2 active monomeric C subunits and an R dimer (By similarity). Interacts with Akap200 (PubMed:10480936).
(UniProt, P81900)
Post Translational Modification
The pseudophosphorylation site binds to the substrate-binding region of the catalytic chain but is not phosphorylated. The physiological significance of phosphorylations by other kinases is unclear (By similarity).
(UniProt, P81900)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pka-R2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Akap200; FB:FBgn0027932
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VLL3
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180782
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012198
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180782
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012198
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012198
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180782
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Pka-R2 protein is strongly expressed in the mushroom body alpha, beta and gamma lobes, spur and calyx. It is moderately expressed in the mushroom body alpha' and beta' lobes.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pka-R2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 23 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Pka-R2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Pka-R2
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
13 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
12 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AXW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506OV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06TM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06OV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0F1K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
7 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Tetramer, composed of 2 regulatory (R) and 2 catalytic (C) subunits (PubMed:9196067). In the presence of cAMP it dissociates into 2 active monomeric C subunits and an R dimer (By similarity). Interacts with Akap200 (PubMed:10480936).
    (UniProt, P81900 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-61
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:9,993,890..10,026,042 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    46D1-46D4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Adamk13906&P{EP}Pka-R2EP2162 and P{PZ}14-3-3ζ07103
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Notes
    The Pka-R2Cos-A1 allele maps distal to P{lacW}Adamk13906 and proximal to P{EP}EP2170.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (23)
    Genomic Clones (29)
    cDNA Clones (87)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Pka-R2 CG15862
    Source for merge of: Pka-R2 BcDNA:GM01761
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of Pka-R2 CG15862 was sequence comparison ( date:000724 ).
    Source for merge of Pka-R2 BcDNA:GM01761 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
    Other Comments
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    Mutants show abnormalities in ovarian development and multiple behavioral phenotypes including arrhythmic circadian locomotor activity, decreased sensitivity to ethanol and cocaine, and a lack of sensitisation to repeated cocaine exposures.
    Type I Pka-R1 and type II Pka-R2 PKA are present in heads. Type II is the major isozyme in heads and only one isoform is present.
    Type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAII) (composed of Pka-R2 and Pka-C1 subunits) is restricted to neuronal tissue, in which it accounts for more than 90% of total PKA activity.
    The dominant phenotype seen in flies heterozygous for the neomorphic "Cos" mutants is the result of a reduced level of function at the cos locus. Haploidy for cos enhances, whereas triploidy for cos suppresses the phenotype of "Cos" heterozygotes. Mutant embryos show phenotypes similar to those caused by mutants at the cos locus.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 73 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:GM01761
    Epa
    cos1
    Name Synonyms
    Epaulette
    Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory subunit type 2
    cAMP-dependent protein kinase R2
    cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II
    costal-1
    protein kinase A
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000353
    • FBgn0033472
    • FBgn0047292
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (133)