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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dimm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
dimmed
Annotation Symbol
CG8667
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0023091
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
dimmed (dimm) encodes a bHLH transcription factor of the Neuro D family that is associated with high levels of protein secretion. It does not specify a pro-secretory cell fate but promotes the cellular properties to support that fate. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
Mistr, c929
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:21,331,756..21,342,155 [+]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcription factor that regulates neurosecretory (NS) cell function and neuroendocrine cell fate. Acts as a master regulator of common NS functions such as Phm expression and neuropeptide production. Plays a role as a regulator of peptide-containing large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) production and peptidergic cell differentiation. Controls transcription of FMRFamide in Tv neuronal cells and Fur1 in Ap-let cells (Tvb and dorsal apterous cells). Also required for up-regulation of Phm in Tv and Ap-let cells, and expression of three neuropeptide genes, Ms, FMRFamide and Lk. Influences both regulated and constitutive secretory activity in neuroendocrine cells at embryonic and postembryonic level. Loss of function studies show reduced cellular levels of various neuropeptides and neuropeptide biosynthetic enzymes.
(UniProt, B6VQA1)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\dimm or the JBrowse view of Dmel\dimm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081514
1411
390
FBtr0333354
3292
390
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081042
41.0
390
6.51
FBpp0305546
41.0
390
6.51
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

390 aa isoforms: dimm-PA, dimm-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Forms homodimers via the bHLH domain. These dimers bind the core E-box sequence.
(UniProt, B6VQA1)
Domain
The basic domain binds to the canonical E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'), with a particular preference for TA relative to AT or CG in the variable central nucleotide positions.
(UniProt, B6VQA1)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\dimm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (8 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011598
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Phm transcript is expressed at a moderate level in the ventral nerve cord of late stage embryos.
dimm is expressed in a series of lateral abdominal neurons, and in some insulin-like producing cells (IPCs).
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
distribution deduced from reporter (Gal4 UAS)
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Embryonic expression of dimm-protein starts in a broad ectodermal domain between stages 11 and 14. At the end of embryonic development expression is observed in all cells of the corpus cardiacum and in seven cells of the stomatogastric nervous system. Additional expression is detected in the dorsal pharyngeal muscle, in 14 trachea-associated endocrine cells, in bidendritic neuron isbp of the peripheral nervous system and throughout the central nervous system. In larval stages dimm-protein can be found in 45 cells per brain hemisphere and in 216 cells of the ventral nerve cord. Most of these cells co-express at least one known neuropeptide marker.
dimm is expressed in a series of lateral abdominal neurons, and in some insulin-like producing cells (IPCs).
Dimm expression is first seen in the Tvb neuron at stage 15 and in the Tv neuron at stage 16. Expression appears after that of ap and sqz.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}dimm929
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GMR10D10-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GMR10G07-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\dimm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of dimm
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of dimm
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (24)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (23)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (23)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (26)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D04 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DMT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G15AI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (10)
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Forms homodimers via the bHLH domain. These dimers bind the core E-box sequence.
    (UniProt, B6VQA1 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-54
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:21,331,756..21,342,155 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    39D1-39D1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k14505k14505&P{lacW}l(2)k05106k05106 and P{PZ}l(2)05095a05095a
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (13)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (3)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for identity of: Mistr CG8667
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: dimm Mistr
          Additional comments
          Other Comments
          dimm controls the levels of secretion of a number of neuro-peptides by neuro-secretory neurons in the CNS. It does this, at least in part, by regulating the levels of the enzymes which produce these neuro-peptides rather than by altering the differentiation state of the cells involved - as assessed by morphology.
          dimm may have an integral role in the cell differentiation of neuroendocrine lineages by the amplification of the regulated secretory pathway by dedicated secretory cells.
          In a dimm mutant animal, neuroendocrine neurons survive and retain morphological differentiation. However, they fail to display normal levels of regulated secretory components, like neuropeptides and neuropeptide biosynthetic enzymes.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 30 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Linkouts
          ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0032942
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (119)