-protein is expressed in adult pacemaker neurons s-LNv. Labeling at the axon terminals is strongest at Zeitgeber time 2 and 5.
protein is expressed in all of the l-LNv and four of the five s-LNv neurons. It also labels their projections to the medulla.
immunolocalization is exclusively found in the cytoplasm and arborizations of the neurons it is expressed in.
Expression of Pdf
in the lateral neurons is first detected at about 6 hours into the first instar larval stage.
protein in the adult is expressed in the s-LNv Pdf positive neurons, l-LNv neurons and the Pdf neurons in the tritocerebrum. On the third instar larval stage it is expressed in the s-LNv Pdf neurons and Pdf neurons of the abdominal neuromere.
gene is expressed in three cell types of the adults: four of the five small LNv neurons, two to four neurons close to the tritocerebrum, and four to six neurons of the abdominal neuromere.
is expressed in the small LNvs which are located in both anterior brain hemispheres between the central brain and medulla at the level of the esophageal foramen. The large LNvs give rise to a network of fibers that cover the anterior medulla and, via the posterior optic tract, the posterior medulla. Pdf
staining generally appears weaker in the s-LNv Pdf neurons than the l-LNv neurons.
is first seen expressed within four of the five s-LNv neurons 4-5hrs after hatching and is maintained through to adulthood. In late L1 larvae, Pdf
expression is seen within 2-4 cells lying close to the dorsal cortex, and expression is also seen within eight neurons of the eighth abdominal neuromere. Both of these expression patterns remain into adulthood, though the Pdf
expression in the cells of the fused adult abdominal ganglion is found only in four (with an occasional 2 extra) neurons. At approximately 50% of pupation, Pdf
is expressed in the l-LNv neurons - 6-8 cells located in the lateral protocerebrum, generally anterior and dorsal to the s-LNv neuronal cluster, and continues through to adulthood. At the same time, Pdf
expression becomes evident in 2-4 anterioventrally located cells close to the tritocerebrum, but this expression is lost by four days post-eclosion.