Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\trr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
trithorax-related
Annotation Symbol
CG3848
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0023518
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
trithorax-related (trr) encodes a methyltransferase that trimethylates lysine 4 of the histone encoded by His3. The activity of the product of trr is stimulated by ecdysone and is important for eye development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

EG:63B12.3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-0.2
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:1881313..1889950
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (18 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q94545
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:EcR; FB:FBgn0000546
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:usp; FB:FBgn0003964
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002505160
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002505160
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002505160
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002505160
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002505160
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the class V-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. Histone-lysine methyltransferase family. TRX/MLL subfamily. (Q8IRW8)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
trithorax-related (trr) encodes a methyltransferase that trimethylates lysine 4 of the histone encoded by His3. The activity of the product of trr is stimulated by ecdysone and is important for eye development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
TRR COMPLEX -
The Trithorax-related (Trr) complex is a COMPASS-like complex that mediates the methylation of histone H3K4 and demethylation of histone H3K27. (Adapted from FBrf0216343 and FBrf0218498).
SET DOMAIN LYSINE METHYLTRANSFERASES -
SET domain lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) catalyze the addition of methyl groups to lysine residues. SET domain KMTs possess a domain that was original characterized in the D.mel KMTs Su(var)3-9, E(z) and trx. (Adapted from FBrf0216343).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Histone methyltransferase that acts as a coactivator for the ecdysone receptor during development. Specifically trimethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Recruited by EcR in an ecdysone-dependent manner causing H3 'Lys-4' trimethylation at ecdysone-inducible promoters, leading to activate expression. Plays a central role in the developing compound eye, during the progression of the morphogenetic furrow and in post-furrow differentiation of the retinal epithelium, notably by activating expression of hh. Also required for wing and abdominal development.
(UniProt, Q8IRW8)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

constituent of the Trr H3K4 methyltransferase, nuclear receptor co-activator complex, acts as a coactivator of Ecdysone receptor by altering the chromatin structure at ecdysone-responsive promoters

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\trr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070362
8251
2410
FBtr0070363
8314
2431
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

9.6 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070346
257.4
2410
9.17
FBpp0070347
259.8
2431
9.23
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

2431 (aa); 260 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of the MLL3/4 complex composed at least of the catalytic subunit trr, ash2, Rbbp5, Dpy-30L1, wds, hcf, ptip, Pa1, Utx, Lpt and Ncoa6. Interacts with nuclear receptor EcR in an ecdysone-dependent manner. Interacts with ash2; the interaction stabilizes trr.

(UniProt, Q8IRW8)
Domain

Contains 3 Leu-Xaa-Xaa-Leu-Leu (LXXLL) motifs. LXXLL motif 2 is essential for the association with nuclear receptor EcR.

(UniProt, Q8IRW8)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\trr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

trr transcripts are more abundant in 1-7hr embryos than in 7-20hr embryos on northern blots. By in situ hybridization, they are first detected during oogenesis in stage 8 nurse cells. At stage 10, they are seen at the anterior end of the oocyte and are uniformly distributed later on. In embryos, they are uniformly distributed from the preblastoderm stage until the germ band extended stage. In germ band extended embryos, they are enriched in the mesoderm. During germ band retraction, trr transcripts are strongly expressed in the anterior and posterior midguts. They become less abundant after germ band retraction and are mainly found in the ventral nerve cord and the brain. In third instar larvae, they are strongly and ubiquitously expressed in imaginal discs and at a lower level in salivary glands.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\trr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 10 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 24 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of trr
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of trr
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (22)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
3  
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Hsap\LOC107985798
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (22)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (24)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (6)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919027I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915000J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W000F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (16)
5 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the MLL3/4 complex composed at least of the catalytic subunit trr, ash2, Rbbp5, Dpy-30L1, wds, hcf, ptip, Pa1, Utx, Lpt and Ncoa6. Interacts with nuclear receptor EcR in an ecdysone-dependent manner. Interacts with ash2; the interaction stabilizes trr.
(UniProt, Q8IRW8 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-0.2
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
2B14-2B14
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1444&P{EP}CG14818EP1190 and P{EP}CG3600EP1232
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (13)
Genomic Clones (18)
 
cDNA Clones (17)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     

    polyclonal

    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    "l(1)G0355" may affect "trr".

    Other Comments

    trr may not be involved in the regulation of homeotic genes or in position effect variegation.

    Transcription unit identified during molecular analysis of the arm region.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 49 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-2Bb
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0019895
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (119)