Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sns
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sticks and stones
Annotation Symbol
CG33141
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0024189
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
sticks and stones (sns) encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which mediates cell-cell recognition and adhesion. The product of sns marks the fusion competent population of myoblasts. It also contributes to formation and function of the nephrocyte diaphragm and cell sorting within the developing ommatidia. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
43-49
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:8,798,489..8,856,091 [+]
Recombination map
2-59
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Summary (Interactive Fly)
single pass transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of fusion competent myoblasts - essential for fusion of embryonic myoblasts - contributes to formation and function of the nephrocyte diaphragm and cell sorting within the developing ommatidia
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\sns or the JBrowse view of Dmel\sns for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088635
8505
1479
FBtr0111043
8694
1542
FBtr0339277
8544
1492
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
8.035 (compiled cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087716
161.9
1479
7.81
FBpp0110338
168.2
1542
8.11
FBpp0308386
162.7
1492
8.10
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1483 (aa); 162 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sns using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Mec2; FB:FBgn0030993
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:hbs; FB:FBgn0029082
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with EMBL:AF035385
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with EMBL:AF035385
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression of sns is observed in two bands in the fusion-competent myoblasts of the somatic and visceral mesoderm, a dorsal band corresponding to the fusion-competent myoblasts of the visceral mesoderm and a ventral band corresponding to the fusion-competent myoblasts of the somatic mesoderm.
sns transcript is detected in the embryonic visceral and somatic musculature.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
distribution deduced from reporter
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immuno-electron microscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
sns protein is expressed only in terminally differentiated myoblasts.
sns and hbs are observed primarily in primary pigment cells in a pattern complementary to rst and kirre.
sns protein is enriched at the cell membrane. The protein localizes to discrete sites in the membrane as muscle founder cell fusion progresses, and amounts of the protein decline during the process.
sns protein is localized to regions of cell-cell contact in mononucleate embryonic garland cells and binucleate embryonic/larval garland cells; distribution is also observed in in intracellular and cell surface puncta. kirre protein is partially colocalized with sns protein. sns protein is expressed in garland cells at all larval stages; immuno-EM reveals sns protein to be localized to the nephrocyte diaphragm of larval garland cells in second and third instar larvae.
The pattern of sns protein expression matches that of sns transcript expression, with expression detected in visceral and somatic musculature.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{sns-GAL4.GCN}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-GAL4.K}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-GAL4.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-lacZ.K}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-lacZ.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sns-mCherry.NLS}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sns in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 35 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sns
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sns
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900K4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500HS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00DY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00D1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00UN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (19)
7 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-59
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:8,798,489..8,856,091 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
44F1-44F1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)44DEa05847 and P{lacW}Rya-r44Fk04913
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Notes
Maps between positions 43 and 49 on chromosome 2.
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (10)
Genomic Clones (49)
cDNA Clones (10)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: sns 43-49
      Source for merge of: sns CG18464 CG12495 CG13754 CG13753 CG13752 CG2385 CG8278
      Source for merge of: sns CG13755
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of sns CG18464 CG12495 CG13754 CG13753 CG13752 CG2385 CG8278 was sequence comparison ( date:000622 ).
      Source for merge of sns CG13755 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).
      Other Comments
      RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
      snsis required for the formation of syncytia within the visceral musculature of the midgut.
      sns is essential for myoblast fusion.
      sns mutant embryos show a dramatic absence of muscle fibres and a large number of unfused myosin-expressing cells. Formation of the heart and visceral musculature appears normal, the CNS and PNS show no gross abnormalities, and no defects in dorsal closure are seen.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 44 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      CG18464
      sns
      (Ben-Zvi and Volk, 2019, Carrasco-Rando et al., 2019, Dlugos et al., 2019, Drechsler et al., 2018, Hagmann and Brinkkoetter, 2018, Hermle et al., 2018, Machado et al., 2018, Millet-Boureima et al., 2018, Bataillé et al., 2017, Hermle et al., 2017, Carrasco-Rando et al., 2016, Dubois et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Segal et al., 2016, Ugur et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Na et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Bao, 2014, Ciglar et al., 2014, Haralalka et al., 2014, Montgomery et al., 2014, Weitkunat and Schnorrer, 2014, Kaipa et al., 2013, Ozkan et al., 2013, Ozkan et al., 2013, Popichenko et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Duan et al., 2012, Hazelett et al., 2012, Helmstadter et al., 2012, Johnson et al., 2012, Susic-Jung et al., 2012, Bellen et al., 2011, Guan et al., 2011, Haralalka et al., 2011, Hornbruch-Freitag et al., 2011, Jin et al., 2011, Rotkopf et al., 2011, Takemura and Adachi-Yamada, 2011, Bao et al., 2010, Cunha et al., 2010, Sugie et al., 2010, Dworkin et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Shelton et al., 2009, Weavers et al., 2009, Weavers et al., 2009, Zhuang et al., 2009, Berger et al., 2008, Carrasco-Rando and Ruiz-Gómez, 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Kocherlakota et al., 2008, Zhuang et al., 2008, Dietzl et al., 2007, Jakobsen et al., 2007, Kesper et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Massarwa et al., 2007, Richardson et al., 2007, Schafer et al., 2007, Estrada et al., 2006, Nguyen and Frasch, 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Stute et al., 2006, Varshney and Palmer, 2006, Hossain et al., 2005, Menon et al., 2005, Stanyon et al., 2004)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0026614
      • FBgn0033331
      • FBgn0033332
      • FBgn0033333
      • FBgn0033334
      • FBgn0033335
      • FBgn0033336
      • FBgn0040776
      • FBgn0042193
      • FBgn0053141
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (213)