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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\IKKβ
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
I-kappaB kinase β
Annotation Symbol
CG4201
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0024222
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
I-kappaB kinase β (IKKβ) encodes a a component of the IκB Kinase (IKK) complex together with the product of key. IKK complex participates in the activation of the transcription factor encoded by Rel in the immune deficiency pathway. This pathway regulates the antibacterial response and other less characterized cellular processes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

ird5, DmIKKβ, IKK, IKK-β, immune response deficient 5

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:16,046,347..16,049,421 [-]
Recombination map

3-58

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:16046347..16049421
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. I-kappa-B kinase subfamily. (Q9VEZ5)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER CONVENTIONAL PROTEIN KINASE DOMAIN KINASES -
The group of 'other conventional protein kinase domain kinases' consists of kinases with a conventional eukaryotic protein kinase domain that do not fit into any of the other major groups. This grouping is described in FBrf0201870.
Pathway (FlyBase)
Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the activation of the NF-kappa-B factor Relish (Rel) by acting as an essential signaling component in transmitting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signal leading to cact degradation, which is required for direct activation of Rel. Phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B (cact) thus leading to the dissociation of the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex and ultimately the degradation of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor. Essential for antibacterial immune response.
(UniProt, Q9VEZ5)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\IKKβ or the JBrowse view of Dmel\IKKβ for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Shares 5' exon(s) with upstream non-coding gene; shared promoter.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0304804
2488
717
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.476 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0293344
82.6
717
8.02
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

731 (aa); 84 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with key to form the I-kappa-B kinase complex. In vitro, interacts with cact.

(UniProt, Q9VEZ5)
Post Translational Modification

Autophosphorylated; upon LPS stimulation it is transiently activated, and can be autophosphorylated.

(UniProt, Q9VEZ5)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\IKKβ using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (15 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9GYV5
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q03017
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001491808
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001491808
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001491808
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

pcr
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

IKK is constitutively expressed at all developmental stages.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\IKKβ in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of IKKβ
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of IKKβ
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
8 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919038T )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501K0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07L9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X025Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
3 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with key to form the I-kappa-B kinase complex. In vitro, interacts with cact.
    (UniProt, Q9VEZ5 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-58

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:16,046,347..16,049,421 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    89B1-89B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}blp01618 and P{PZ}gish04895&P{EP}EP3171
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    89B-89B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (9)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (102)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: IKKβ ird5

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: IKK ird5

      Source for merge of: ird5 anon-89Bd

      Source for merge of: IKK IK

      Source for merge of: IKK LPS-responsive-kinase

      Additional comments

      Renamed from the placeholder symbol 'ird5' to 'IKKβ', which is the preferred symbol in the published literature.

      Source for merge of IKK IK was sequence comparison ( date:000202 ).

      Source for merge of IKK LPS-responsive-kinase was sequence comparison ( date:000306 ).

      Other Comments

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

      Mutants show no detectable induction of Dpt, CecA1, CecA2, Def, Dro or Mtk on bacterial challenge. Attacin levels are 30% wild type and Drs induction is normal. In direction of increasing cytology: pnr+ ird5- msps+ Akt1+

      ird5 is specifically required for the activation of Rel.

      A small fraction of embryos produced by homozygous mutant females show a weakly dorsalized phenotype.

      Identification: as a mutation that fails to induce expression of Ecol\lacZDpt.PR normally in response to infection. 2 alleles have been obtained.

      ird5 is required for the activation of the antibacterial immune response genes.

      Identification: transcription unit identified during molecular analysis of the msps genomic region.

      Encodes a Drosophila I-ΚB kinase.

      Components of the immune response are identified in a screen for the failure to induce a Dpt (an antibacterial peptide) Ecol\lacZ reporter gene.

      Mutants are impaired in their induction of Dpt, but show distinct regulation of the two transcription factors, dl and Dif, implicated in the immune response.

      Identification: EMS screen for mutations that prevent Dpt expression in response to infection.

      Mutants exhibit a constitutive Dif nuclear localisation.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 52 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (48)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      IK
      Lak
      anon-89Bd
      ird5/DmIkkβ
      Name Synonyms
      I-kappaB kinase β
      IKK-like protein
      LPS-responsive kinase
      LPS-responsive-kinase
      Lipopolysaccharide activated kinase
      cactus kinase
      immune response-deficient 5
      mmune response deficient 5
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0028725
      • FBgn0028726
      • FBgn0029099
      • FBgn0029160
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (159)