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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\gbb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
glass bottom boat
Annotation Symbol
CG5562
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0024234
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
glass bottom boat (gbb) encodes a BMP ligand in the TGF-beta/BMP family of dimeric signaling molecules. It binds to a receptor complex to transduce signal through phosphorylation of the product of Mad. It contributes to maintain stem cell populations, control cell fate specification, proliferation, synapse growth and neuropeptide release. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Also Known As

60A, gbb-60A, tgfb-60A, Tgfbeta-60A, BMP

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,851,562..23,853,247 [+]
Recombination map

2-105

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:23851562..23853247
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the TGF-beta family. (P27091)
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
BMP Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway is one of two branches of Transforming Growth Factor-β family signaling in Drosophila. The binding of a BMP family dimer to a heterodimeric serine/threonine kinase receptor complex results in the phosphorylation of Mad, a member of the Smad family. Mad forms a complex with the co-Smad, Med. This complex translocates into the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes in concert with other nuclear cofactors. (Adapted from FBrf0236482.)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS -
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a subfamily of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β family - a group of extracellular ligands for the TGF-β-Receptor family. The binding of a BMP dimer to a heterodimeric serine/threonine kinase receptor complex results in the phosphorylation of Mad, a member of the Smad family. Mad forms a complex with the co-Smad, Med. This complex translocates into the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes in concert with other nuclear cofactors. (Adapted from FBrf0236482.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the growth of imaginal tissues and for patterning of the adult wing.
(UniProt, P27091)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

TGF-beta superfamily - BMP 7 homolog - potentiates signaling - High fat diet-induced Gbb signaling provokes insulin resistance through the expression - gates the expression of synaptic homeostasis independent of synaptic growth control

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\gbb or the JBrowse view of Dmel\gbb for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072127
1686
455
FBtr0343274
1605
455
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.7 (unknown)

1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072036
51.7
455
6.44
FBpp0309939
51.7
455
6.44
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

455 aa isoforms: gbb-PA, gbb-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

455 (aa); 48 (kD observed); 52 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer; disulfide-linked.

(UniProt, P27091)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\gbb using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (28 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218063
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001111, InterPro:IPR001839, InterPro:IPR017948
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:1072
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:88182
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000932183
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218063
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218063
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000218063
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

gbb is observed to be expressed in somatic cells of the testis.

gbb is observed to be expressed in somatic cells of the germarium.

The gbb transcript is detected at low levels thoughout the imaginal disc tissue, with higher levels of expression in the posterior region and the wing pouch of the wing disc, anterior to the morphogenetic forrow and in the medial regions of the eye-antennal disc, and in the posterior and ventral anterior regions of the leg disc.

gbb protein is first detected after stage 7. By stage 10, gbb protein expression is observed in the stomodeal invagination and the mesoderm. Expression at stage 12 is found in the anterior and posterior midguts and in the visceral mesoderm. In later embryos, staining is observed in the foregut, hindgut, anterior and posterior midguts.

gbb is expressed throughout development with peaks in 4-12hr embryos, late larvae, and pupae. It is expressed in adult males at high levels but not in females.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

At the larval neuromuscular junction, extracellular gbb protein concentrated in a ring of punctate domains around boutons.

Mad protein accumulates in motor neuron nuclei beginning at embryonic stage 15.

The gbb protein is detected at low levels thoughout the imaginal disc tissue, however, distinctly lower levels of protein are detected along the morphogenetic forrow of the eye-antennal disc, along the anterior-posterior boundary of the wing disc, and in the dorsal anterior region of the leg disc.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{gbb-GAL4.K}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{gbb-lacZ.K}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{gbb-lexA::VP16}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\gbb in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 12 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 42 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of gbb
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of gbb
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
synapse & neuromuscular junction, with gbb2/gbb1
synapse & neuromuscular junction (with gbb1), with gbbUAS.cKa
synapse & neuromuscular junction (with gbb2), with gbbUAS.cKa
wing (with gbb1)
wing (with gbb3)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (33)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (33)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (29)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (30)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
10 of 12
No
Yes
10 of 12
No
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (41)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908PA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504VT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05E5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07ST )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0C2J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
(UniProt, P27091 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
BMP Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway is one of two branches of Transforming Growth Factor-β family signaling in Drosophila. The binding of a BMP family dimer to a heterodimeric serine/threonine kinase receptor complex results in the phosphorylation of Mad, a member of the Smad family. Mad forms a complex with the co-Smad, Med. This complex translocates into the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes in concert with other nuclear cofactors. (Adapted from FBrf0236482.)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map

2-105

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,851,562..23,853,247 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
60A3-60A4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}eIF6k13214 and P{lacW}kenk11035&P{EP}CG17658EP730
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
60A1-60A3
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (12)
Genomic Clones (21)
cDNA Clones (30)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of

          Source for identity of: gbb CG5562

          Source for database merge of
          Additional comments
          Other Comments

          gbb and the Dp186 isoform of Dys have an additive effect on synaptic currents, acting through separate non-interacting pathways.

          gbb may globally regulate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) function by controlling both the growth and transmitter release properties of the synapse as well as the expression of systemic modulators of NMJ synaptic activity.

          gbb has both local and long-range functions during wing development that coincide both spatially and functionally with the established functions of dpp. gbb and dpp act locally along the longitudinal and cross veins to affect the process of vein promotion during pupal development, and act long-range from a single focus along the anterior/posterior compartment boundary to affect the processes of disc proliferation and vein specification during larval development. For the local foci, gbb function is confined to regions of the veins that require the highest levels of dpp signaling. For the long-range focus, gbb function does not appear to affect the high point of the dpp gradient, but instead appear to be required for low points.

          gbb gene product is not required maternally if zygotic function is supplied.

          gbb is required for the maintenance of Antp expression in the visceral mesoderm.

          gbb is required for many developmental processes, including embryonic midgut morphogenesis, patterning of the larval cuticle, fat body morphology and the development and patterning of the imaginal discs. Signaling by both dpp and gbb contributes to the development of some tissues, while gbb acts alone in the development of others.

          When dpp signaling is compromised, lowering the level of gbb activity impairs several dpp-dependent developmental processes, such as the patterning of the visceral mesoderm, embryonic ectoderm and imaginal discs.

          The readout of the dpp/tkv activity gradient requires synergistic signaling of gbb through sax for normal bi expression and growth whereas the diffusion of dpp is restricted by elevated levels of tkv expression which is controlled by an unknown mechanism.

          gbb is required in the wing disc to down-regulate ci. Ectopic expression and mutations of gbb result in defective wings reminiscent of phenotypes exhibited by wing patterning genes such as ci and dpp.

          gbb is required for growth and patterning of the wing. The requirement for gbb in wing morphogenesis is distinct from that for dpp. gbb and dpp interact genetically. Specific aspects of this interaction are synergistic, while others are antagonistic.

          In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

          Mutants show no interaction with Df(2R)Pcl11B or Df(3L)66C-G28.

          The accession X97775 contains the coding sequences of Tgfbeta-60A, not bgcn. There is no obvious NA sequence level alignment between this accession and the other one ascribed to bgcn (X97641).

          Mutations in gbb result in larval lethality.

          Assays of developmental function demonstrate that Scer\GAL4 induced ectopic expression of gbb has distinct effects on development, embryogenesis precedes as normal but lethality occurs during pupal development.

          Highly purified recombinant dpp and gbb proteins can induce the formation of cartilage, bone and bone marrow in mammals, as assayed in the rat subcutaneous bone induction model.

          gbb encodes a preproprotein that is processed to yield secreted amino and carboxy terminal polypeptides.

          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology

          Mutant larvae are transparent, giving rise to the gene name "glass bottom boat".

          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 44 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
          MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (28)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          SixtyA
          Tgfβ-60A
          gbb
          (Dason et al., 2019, Drummond-Barbosa, 2019, Held et al., 2019, Kamimura et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Nelson et al., 2019, Whittle and Extavour, 2019, Yoshinari et al., 2019, Kanai et al., 2018, Le et al., 2018, Liao et al., 2018, Mehrotra and Deshpande, 2018, Monedero Cobeta et al., 2018, Mortensen et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Akbergenova and Littleton, 2017, Jordán-Álvarez et al., 2017, Shilts and Broadie, 2017, Takemura and Nakato, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Wells et al., 2017, Barton et al., 2016, Garaulet et al., 2016, Harris et al., 2016, Hong et al., 2016, Tauscher et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Ayyaz et al., 2015, Barr et al., 2015, Bivik et al., 2015, Fried and Iber, 2015, Kavi et al., 2015, Ray, 2015.6.29, Ray, 2015.6.29, Deshpande et al., 2014, Hamada-Kawaguchi et al., 2014, Ito et al., 2014, Liu et al., 2014, Sulkowski et al., 2014, Bausek, 2013, Beckwith et al., 2013, Brückner, 2013.7.16, Chauhan et al., 2013, Nahm et al., 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Wotton et al., 2013, Yu et al., 2013, Akiyama et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Dani et al., 2012, Fritsch et al., 2012, Fuentes-Medel et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Le and Wharton, 2012, Matunis et al., 2012, Pennetier et al., 2012, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2012, Smith et al., 2012, Clark et al., 2011, Dejima et al., 2011, Dutko and Mullins, 2011, Eliazer and Buszczak, 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Graf et al., 2011, James and Broihier, 2011, Kaczmarczyk and Kopp, 2011, Miller et al., 2011, Pilgram et al., 2011, Quijano et al., 2011, Veverytsa and Allan, 2011, Ballard et al., 2010, Ball et al., 2010, Ellis et al., 2010, Fritsch et al., 2010, Higashi-Kovtun et al., 2010, Kang and Bier, 2010, Nahm et al., 2010, Saja et al., 2010, Sato et al., 2010, Wagner et al., 2010, Evans et al., 2009, Jaramillo et al., 2009, Massaro et al., 2009, Pentek et al., 2009, Tan et al., 2009, Twombly et al., 2009, Christoforou et al., 2008, Fradkin et al., 2008, Miguel-Aliaga et al., 2008, O'Connor-Giles et al., 2008, Rodal et al., 2008, Serpe et al., 2008, Ulvklo et al., 2008, Ballard and Wharton, 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Fritsch and Ray, 2007, Goold and Davis, 2007, Kazama et al., 2007, Nilsson et al., 2007, Pan et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Zhang et al., 2007, Bangi and Wharton, 2006, Payne and Braun, 2006, Eaton and Davis, 2005, Kirilly et al., 2005, Marques, 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Baines, 2004)
          vgr/60A
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0004788
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (344)