General Information
Symbol
Dmel\brk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
brinker
Annotation Symbol
CG9653
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0024250
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Brinker (Brk) is a transcriptional repressor. It plays important roles in the development of many tissues, including most imaginal discs, where its expression is negatively regulated by Dpp signaling. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
ssg-1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:7,307,939..7,311,132 [+]
Recombination map
1-20
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Protein Domains/Motifs
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
OTHER DNA BINDING DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The Other DNA binding domain transcription factors group is a collection of DNA-binding transcription factors that do not fit into any of the other major domain-based transcription factor groups.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\brk or the JBrowse view of Dmel\brk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071048
3194
704
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.654 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071007
77.5
704
6.88
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\brk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:dsx; FB:FBgn0000504
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

salivary gland body primordium

Comment: reported as salivary gland body specific anlage

Additional Descriptive Data
brk transcripts are expressed at the anterior and posterior extremes of the wing disc.
brk transcripts are expressed in lateral regions of the wing disc in a complementary pattern to that of dpp transcripts. In leg discs, brk expression is lowest in the dorsal compartment where dpp transcripts are expressed.
In late syncytial and cellular blastoderm embryos, brk transcripts are expressed in a 9-10 nuclei-wide ventro-lateral stripe. The stripe expands to 18 nuclei wide shortly before gastrulation. A narrow gap initially separates the stripe dorsally from the dpp expression domain. Ventrally, the stripe is separated by one row of cells from the sna domain. The lateral brk domain largely overlaps the sog expression domain. During germ band extension, brk continues to be expressed in the ventral ectoderm where it appears to be restricted to neuroectodermal cells during neuroblast segregation. At stage 10, new sites of expression are observed in the ventral mesoderm. During stage 11, some ectodermal cells surrounding the tracheal pits express brk. brk expression is observed in the developing midgut during germ band retraction. In stage 13, three domains of brk expression in the visceral mesoderm and endoderm of the developing gut are observed. One is slightly anterior to the region of the developing gastric caecae, one is approximately at the location of parasegment 5, and one is at the border of the midgut and hindgut. During dorsal closure, brk transcripts are expressed in a broad stripe of ectodermal cells localized ventrally to the leading edge cells in which dpp controls morphogenesis. In general, brk is expressed in a complementary manner to regions of dpp signalling.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
brk protein is expressed at the anterior and posterior extremes of the wing disc. It is also detected in a gradient along the anterior-posterior axis in the wing pouch.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\brk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 32 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of brk
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 55 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of brk
Allele of brk
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of brk
characterization construct
Name
Expression Data
GAL4 construct
vital-reporter construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DMM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915060J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01K6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01I4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-20
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:7,307,939..7,311,132 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    7B1-7B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG9650EP1340&P{EP}CG9650EP1617 and P{EP}CBPEP1643&P{EP}EP1523EP1523
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    7B-7B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (22)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    "l(1)G0082" may affect "brk". "l(1)G0182" may affect "brk". "l(1)G0029" may affect "brk".
    Other Comments
    The brk product negatively regulates dac expression in the embryonic head.
    The brk silencer serves as a direct target for a protein complex consisting of Mad/Med and shn.
    3 alleles of brk been recovered in a screen for mutations with mutant phenotypes in clones in the wing.
    The brk co-repressors gro and CtBP are alternately used for repressing some dpp-responsive genes, whereas for repressing other, distinct, target genes they are not required.
    brk not only plays a role in dorsal-ventral but also in anterior-posterior axis patterning.
    dpp can control gene expression indirectly by downregulating the expression of brk, which represses dpp targets. Overall orientation not stated: brk- anon-7Ab+
    The medial-to-lateral dpp gradient along the anterior-posterior axis in the developing wing is complemented by a lateral-to-medial brk gradient, and the opposition of these two gradients may allow cells to detect small differences in dpp concentration and respond by activating different target genes.
    The embryonic phenotype of brk mutants indicates an involvement in dpp signalling.
    brk acts as a dpp antagonist in wing patterning. brk function is most important in regions where the dpp gradient has diminishing levels or where a further spreading of the dpp signal has to be prevented.
    brk represses dpp target genes independently of dl in the early embryo. brk has differential effects on dpp target genes, depending on the level of dpp activity required for their activation.
    brk protein negatively regulates dpp-dependent genes.
    brk mutations are embryonic lethal. Homozygous embryos show an expansion of dorsal epidermis at the expense of ventral epidermis. Mosaic analysis indicates that brk is required for imaginal disc patterning.
    brk acts cell-autonomously as a negative element within the dpp pathway, acting downstream of dpp.
    brk mutant embryos show an embryonic dorsal-ventral phenotype where the denticle belts are reduced in width. brk also affects adult appendage development and wing vein patterning. Increasing the number of copies of brk+ in male flies enhances the dpp wing vein phenotype. The dpp wing vein phenotype is suppressed in female flies carrying a single copy of brk+.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 34 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    brk
    (Barrio and Milán, 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Martín et al., 2017, Osterfield et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Upadhyay et al., 2017, Esposito et al., 2016, Kwon et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Charbonnier et al., 2015, Denes et al., 2015, Luo et al., 2015, Merino et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Foo et al., 2014, Hodar et al., 2014, Mannervik, 2014, Navarro et al., 2014, Restrepo et al., 2014, Roy et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2013, Curtis et al., 2013, Dunipace et al., 2013, Gafner et al., 2013, Harbison et al., 2013, Humphreys et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Li et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Upadhyai and Campbell, 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Akiyama et al., 2012, Chopra et al., 2012, Hamaguchi et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Le and Wharton, 2012, Liang et al., 2012, Rebeiz et al., 2012, Rushlow and Shvartsman, 2012, Spokony and White, 2012.5.22, Stultz et al., 2012, Ziv et al., 2012, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Garcia and Stathopoulos, 2011, Hamaratoglu et al., 2011, Lott et al., 2011, Mrinal et al., 2011, Nien et al., 2011, Oh and Irvine, 2011, Ozdemir et al., 2011, Rodriguez, 2011, Schwank et al., 2011, Suissa et al., 2011, Thomas et al., 2011, Firth et al., 2010, Popodi et al., 2010-, Portela et al., 2010, Venken et al., 2010, Vuilleumier et al., 2010, Weiss et al., 2010, Yagi et al., 2010, Bai et al., 2009, Cai and Laughon, 2009, Foronda et al., 2009, Lembong et al., 2009, McKay et al., 2009, McNamee and Brodsky, 2009, Papatsenko et al., 2009, Song et al., 2009, Twombly et al., 2009, Widmann and Dahmann, 2009, Wolfstetter et al., 2009, Ziv et al., 2009, Zúñiga et al., 2009, Bates et al., 2008, Beaver et al., 2008, Bickel et al., 2008, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Charbonnier and Pyrowolakis, 2008, Estella and Mann, 2008, Estella et al., 2008, Fromental-Ramain et al., 2008, Fu and Levine, 2008, Hong et al., 2008, McNamee and Brodsky, 2008, Mieszczanek et al., 2008, Newfeld et al., 2008, Qi et al., 2008, Rogulja et al., 2008, Schwank et al., 2008, Warrior et al., 2008, Yao et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Barrio et al., 2007, Engström et al., 2007, Estella and Mann, 2007, Gao and Laughon, 2007, Gerlitz et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Hatton-Ellis et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Shravage et al., 2007, Theisen et al., 2007, Umemori et al., 2007, Walsh and Carroll, 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Anderson et al., 2006, Bangi and Wharton, 2006, Bangi and Wharton, 2006, Chen and Schupbach, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Gao and Laughon, 2006, Glinka et al., 2006, Herranz et al., 2006, Mizutani et al., 2006, Mosimann et al., 2006, Ratnaparkhi et al., 2006, Sotillos and de Celis, 2006, Stultz et al., 2006, Yao et al., 2006, Gao et al., 2005, Mehlen et al., 2005, Rogulja and Irvine, 2005, Sotillos and De Celis, 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Markstein et al., 2004, Pyrowolakis et al., 2004, Saller and Bienz, 2001)
    Name Synonyms
    small salivary glands-1
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBtr0071048
    • FBpp0071007
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (380)