General Information
Symbol
Dmel\trio
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
trio
Annotation Symbol
CG18214
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0024277
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
trio (trio) encodes a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the Rho-family GTPases to regulate actin structure and cell adhesion. The GEF encoded by trio acts in several signaling pathways, including Abl tyrosine kinase and BMP signaling pathways. The product of trio is involved in neural wiring (axon and dendrite patterning and synaptogenesis) and muscle development. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Also Known As
DTrio, l(3)S095914, l(3)S036810, M89
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:995,982..1,034,875 [-]
Recombination map
3-0.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS -
RhoGEFs are Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They include Dbl-homology domain-containing proteins (the largest family of RhoGEFs) and CZH2 domain/Dock family GEFs. (Adapted from FBrf0190957).
Interactive Fly
Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor - Loss-of-function mutations result in the misdirection or stall of axons in embryos and also cause malformation of the mushroom body - functions in sculpting class specific dendrite morphogenesis in Drosophila sensory neurons
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\trio or the JBrowse view of Dmel\trio for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072644
9245
2263
FBtr0072647
4187
658
FBtr0072645
9510
2263
FBtr0072646
4904
804
FBtr0072648
3466
398
FBtr0072649
2959
658
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
8.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072539
257.0
2263
6.56
FBpp0072542
73.4
658
8.36
FBpp0072540
257.0
2263
6.56
FBpp0072541
88.0
804
7.83
FBpp0072543
45.5
398
7.31
FBpp0089283
73.4
658
8.36
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2263 aa isoforms: trio-PA, trio-PC
658 aa isoforms: trio-PB, trio-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\trio using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:12303
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Abl; FB:FBgn0000017
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Lar; FB:FBgn0000464
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rac1; FB:FBgn0010333
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Lar; FB:FBgn0000464
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rac1; FB:FBgn0010333
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Mad; FB:FBgn0011648
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
trio protein is detected in embryos along axon fascicles starting in stage 12. By stage 16 it is detected primarily in longitudinal connectives and weakly in commissures of the CNS. trio protein is also detected in the epidermis and in muscle attachment sites. trio protein is detected throughout development. In the adult brain, weak staining is seen in a large number of cells in the cortex and in most neuropil regions. Strong staining is observed in mushroom body, lamina, and ellipsoid body neurons. Within the mushroom body, staining is observed in the alpha\', beta\' and gamma lobes but not in the alpha and beta lobes. trio protein is also observed in the developing mushroom body during larval and pupal stages.
trio protein is expressed in third instar eye imaginal discs in photoreceptor cells as well as in undifferentiated and nonneuronal cells. It is observed along the entire length of the axons as well as in growth cones in dissociated eye disc cells allowed to differentiate in vitro.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\trio in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 60 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of trio
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of trio
    Allele of trio
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of trio
    Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    embryonic central nervous system & axon
    embryonic peripheral nervous system & axon
    photoreceptor cell & axon
    photoreceptor cell & axon (with trio1)
    photoreceptor cell & axon (with trio8)
    photoreceptor cell & axon (with trioS138606)
    photoreceptor cell & axon | somatic clone
    photoreceptor cell & eye disc, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
    photoreceptor cell R7 & axon | somatic clone
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    12 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    11 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (14)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    13 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    10 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
    11 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    8 of 13
    No
    Yes
    4 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
    5 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 12
    No
    Yes
    3 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (19)
    12 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    7 of 15
    No
    Yes
    7 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
    12 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    1 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919007P )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915003S )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00C2 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00BG )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00JY )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-0.5
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3L:995,982..1,034,875 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      61E1-61E2
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0596705967 and P{PZ}l(3)0264002640
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      61F8-61F8
      (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61E (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      61E-61E
      (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61F8 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61F1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (30)
      Genomic Clones (35)
      cDNA Clones (85)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      monoclonal, polyclonal
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Trio l(3)S036810 M89
      Source for merge of: trio l(3)S036810 l(3)S095914
      Source for merge of: trio CG18214
      Source for merge of: trio BEST:LD36950
      Source for merge of: Trio CG9208
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of Trio CG9208 was sequence comparison ( date:000525 ).
      Other Comments
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.
      trio is essential in order for neurites to faithfully extend on the correct pathways. It may also play a postdevelopmental role in neurite terminals.
      Mutants deficient in trio activity display defects in both central and peripheral axon pathways reminiscent of phenotypes observed in embryos deficient in small GTPase function.
      trio and Abl co-operate in regulating axon outgrowth in the embryonic central nervous system.
      trio is required for normal photoreceptor axon guidance.
      Isolated on the basis of sequence similarity to human Trio.
      Haploinsufficiency dependent upon an Abl mutant background (HDA).
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 94 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BEST:LD36950
      l(3)036810
      l(3)6D104
      l(3)S1386/06
      Name Synonyms
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0015758
      • FBgn0028051
      • FBgn0028162
      • FBgn0035180
      • FBgn0035182
      • FBgn0046252
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (200)