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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\trio
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
trio
Annotation Symbol
CG18214
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0024277
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
trio (trio) encodes a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the Rho-family GTPases to regulate actin structure and cell adhesion. The GEF encoded by trio acts in several signaling pathways, including Abl tyrosine kinase and BMP signaling pathways. The product of trio is involved in neural wiring (axon and dendrite patterning and synaptogenesis) and muscle development. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Also Known As
DTrio, l(3)S095914, M89, l(3)S036810
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:995,982..1,034,875 [-]
Recombination map
3-0.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS -
RhoGEFs are Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They include Dbl-homology domain-containing proteins (the largest family of RhoGEFs) and CZH2 domain/Dock family GEFs. (Adapted from FBrf0190957).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor - Loss-of-function mutations result in the misdirection or stall of axons in embryos and also cause malformation of the mushroom body - functions in sculpting class specific dendrite morphogenesis in Drosophila sensory neurons
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\trio or the JBrowse view of Dmel\trio for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072644
9245
2263
FBtr0072647
4187
658
FBtr0072645
9510
2263
FBtr0072646
4904
804
FBtr0072648
3466
398
FBtr0072649
2959
658
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
8.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072539
257.0
2263
6.56
FBpp0072542
73.4
658
8.36
FBpp0072540
257.0
2263
6.56
FBpp0072541
88.0
804
7.83
FBpp0072543
45.5
398
7.31
FBpp0089283
73.4
658
8.36
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2263 aa isoforms: trio-PA, trio-PC
658 aa isoforms: trio-PB, trio-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\trio using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR028570
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:12303
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Abl; FB:FBgn0000017
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Lar; FB:FBgn0000464
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rac1; FB:FBgn0010333
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Lar; FB:FBgn0000464
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rac1; FB:FBgn0010333
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Mad; FB:FBgn0011648
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternal contribution

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: stronger expression 0-12 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Expression in stage P3 pupal leg discs is restricted to presumptive leg joints.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
trio protein is localized at or near the plasma membrane.
trio protein is distributed in a patched pattern in the axons and cell bodies. The patches are in many cases associated with clusters of vesicles in the axoplasm. In the lamina, trio protein is found in the dendritic terminals that contact or intrude into the photoreceptor cells.
trio protein is detected in embryos along axon fascicles starting in stage 12. By stage 16 it is detected primarily in longitudinal connectives and weakly in commissures of the CNS. trio protein is also detected in the epidermis and in muscle attachment sites. trio protein is detected throughout development. In the adult brain, weak staining is seen in a large number of cells in the cortex and in most neuropil regions. Strong staining is observed in mushroom body, lamina, and ellipsoid body neurons. Within the mushroom body, staining is observed in the alpha\', beta\' and gamma lobes but not in the alpha and beta lobes. trio protein is also observed in the developing mushroom body during larval and pupal stages.
trio protein is expressed in third instar eye imaginal discs in photoreceptor cells as well as in undifferentiated and nonneuronal cells. It is observed along the entire length of the axons as well as in growth cones in dissociated eye disc cells allowed to differentiate in vitro.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\trio in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 60 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of trio
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of trio
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
embryonic central nervous system & axon
embryonic peripheral nervous system & axon
photoreceptor cell & axon
photoreceptor cell & axon (with trio1)
photoreceptor cell & axon (with trio8)
photoreceptor cell & axon (with trioS138606)
photoreceptor cell & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell & eye disc, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R7 & axon | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (19)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919007P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915003S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00C2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00BG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00JY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-0.5
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:995,982..1,034,875 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    61E1-61E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0596705967 and P{PZ}l(3)0264002640
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    61F8-61F8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61E (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    61E-61E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61F8 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 61F1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (30)
    Genomic Clones (35)
    cDNA Clones (85)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    monoclonal, polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Trio l(3)S036810 M89
    Source for merge of: trio l(3)S036810 l(3)S095914
    Source for merge of: trio CG18214
    Source for merge of: trio BEST:LD36950
    Source for merge of: Trio CG9208
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of Trio CG9208 was sequence comparison ( date:000525 ).
    Other Comments
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.
    trio is essential in order for neurites to faithfully extend on the correct pathways. It may also play a postdevelopmental role in neurite terminals.
    Mutants deficient in trio activity display defects in both central and peripheral axon pathways reminiscent of phenotypes observed in embryos deficient in small GTPase function.
    trio and Abl co-operate in regulating axon outgrowth in the embryonic central nervous system.
    trio is required for normal photoreceptor axon guidance.
    Isolated on the basis of sequence similarity to human Trio.
    Haploinsufficiency dependent upon an Abl mutant background (HDA).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 100 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BEST:LD36950
    l(3)036810
    l(3)6D104
    l(3)S1386/06
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0015758
    • FBgn0028051
    • FBgn0028162
    • FBgn0035180
    • FBgn0035182
    • FBgn0046252
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (203)