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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mbt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
mushroom bodies tiny
Annotation Symbol
CG18582
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0025743
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Involved in neurogenesis of the adult central nervous system, and together with Cdc42, regulates photoreceptor cell morphogenesis. Phosphorylates exogenous substrates when activated by Cdc42. (UniProt, Q9VXE5)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

Pak2, Ste20, dPAK2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-54
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:16610685..16614856
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (21 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P40793
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Cdc42; FB:FBgn0010341
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in Golgi organization
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001969365
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001969365
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001969365
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily. (Q9VXE5)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
P21-ACTIVATED KINASES -
PAK proteins are serine/threonine kinases characterised by an C-terminal STE20 kinase domain and an N-terminal p21-binding domain which binds RhoGTPases. PAKs are autoinhibited by homodimerization. PAKs are involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton organisation and other signaling cascades. (Adapted from FBrf0187582).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Involved in neurogenesis of the adult central nervous system, and together with Cdc42, regulates photoreceptor cell morphogenesis. Phosphorylates exogenous substrates when activated by Cdc42.
(UniProt, Q9VXE5)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

PAK kinase - downstream effector of Cdc42 - regulates cell adhesion dependent processes during photoreceptor cell differentiation

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\mbt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry Q9VXE5)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.42

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074285
3269
639
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
UniProt
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074060
69.6
639
10.02
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts tightly with GTP-bound but not GDP-bound Cdc42 and weakly with Rac1.

(UniProt, Q9VXE5)
Post Translational Modification

Autophosphorylated when activated by Cdc42.

(UniProt, Q9VXE5)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mbt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that the Fly Cell Atlas project found the gene expressed in that cell type. Darker colors mean that more cells of that cell type express the gene:
 low
high 
Colorless tiles indicate that there is no scRNAseq data for the gene in that cell type.
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data (RNA and/or protein) has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
Colored tiles in the ribbon indicate the average RNA expression level of the gene at the indicated stages:
 low
high 
as determined by RNA-seq (RPKM) using whole organism samples modENCODE, Brown et al., 2014. For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

In interphase neuroblasts, either weak cortical localization of mbt or a more pronounced basal staining was detected. Accumulation of apical mbt protein started at prophase, reached a peak during metaphase and decreased during anaphase. Thus, the apical enrichment of mbt is cell cycle dependent. This cell cycle dependent asymmetric accumulation of mbt was also observed in embryonic brain neuroblasts and thus seems to be present throughout neural development.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\mbt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 14 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mbt
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mbt
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adherens junction & ommatidium | pupal stage P7, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
filamentous actin & eye photoreceptor cell | third instar larval stage, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
filamentous actin & ommatidium | pupal stage P7, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
mushroom body & neuroblast
nucleus & eye photoreceptor cell | third instar larval stage, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
pigment cell & retina | pupal stage P7, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
rhabdomere & eye photoreceptor cell
rhabdomere & eye photoreceptor cell, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (6)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
3 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (15)
6 of 10
5 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
suppressible
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts tightly with GTP-bound but not GDP-bound Cdc42 and weakly with Rac1.
(UniProt, Q9VXE5 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-54
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
14F2-14F2
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1547EP1547 and P{EP}CG4928EP1341
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
14E-14E
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (8)
Genomic Clones (10)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (83)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: mbt anon- EST:fe1G7

Source for merge of: mbt Pak2

Additional comments
Other Comments

Candidate stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA) identified within CDS of this gene.

When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, an increase in the proportion of S phase cells and/or aneuploidy, an increase in the proportion of G2/M phase cells and chromosome alignment defects are seen.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

mbt could be part of a general mechanism regulating cell number in a variety of neuronal tissues.

Mutations in mbt primarily interfere with the generation or survival of the intrinsic cells (Kenyon cells) of the mushroom body.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 47 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
Study result (0)
Result
Result Type
Title
References (84)