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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\HDAC6
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Histone deacetylase 6
Annotation Symbol
CG6170
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0026428
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Histone deacetylase (3.5.1.98)
Gene Snapshot
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) encodes a cytosolic deacetylase that functions as a key modulator of proteostasis by mediating ubiquitin-proteasomal and lysosomal degradation of native and/or misfolded proteins. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-27]
Also Known As
dHDAC6, HDAC, HDAC2, dHDAC2
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:15,333,310..15,340,360 [+]
Recombination map
1-50
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Hydrolysis of an N(6)-acetyl-lysine residue of a histone to yield a deacetylated histone (3.5.1.98)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RPD3/HDA1 LYSINE DEACETYLASES -
The RPD3/HDA1 family are Zn2+-dependent lysine deacetylases that share a common catalytic core domain. (Adapted from FBrf0159755).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
a microtubule-associated deacetylase - interacts with polyubiquitinated proteins to stimulate autophagy as a compensatory degradation system when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is impaired
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
7

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\HDAC6 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\HDAC6 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074008
4483
1128
FBtr0074010
3848
1135
FBtr0074009
4241
1138
FBtr0301774
3451
883
FBtr0307383
3817
1108
FBtr0307384
3272
1022
FBtr0330405
4483
1179
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073825
124.9
1128
6.45
FBpp0073827
125.8
1135
6.45
FBpp0073826
126.0
1138
6.45
FBpp0290988
98.3
883
6.46
FBpp0298372
122.6
1108
6.32
FBpp0298373
113.3
1022
6.85
FBpp0303431
130.8
1179
6.50
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\HDAC6 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (8 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001607
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\HDAC6 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 16 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of HDAC6
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of HDAC6
Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
 
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (6)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901DR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500SN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00ZS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00Y1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0210 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
5 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 6 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-50
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:15,333,310..15,340,360 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
13B6-13B6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}hiwEP1308 and P{EP}Ahcy13EP1007
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (17)
Genomic Clones (11)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (83)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
polyclonal
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: HDAC2 CG6170
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
HDAC6 regulates T-bar morphology.
Gene expression is increased in response to the presence of two copies of Scer\GAL4hs.PB.
S2 cells which have been treated with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against HDAC6 show no significant inhibition of cell growth.
The HDAC6 gene can be spliced into two isoforms, HDAC6-S, and HDAC6-L, containing 883 and 1128 amino acids, respectively. These isoforms are identical except that HDAC6-L has an additional 75 amino acids at the N terminus and 170 amino acids at the C terminus containing a ubiquitin binding protein domain.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 95 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Name Synonyms
HDAC6
Histone Deacetylase 6
Histone deacetylase 6
histone deacetylase HDA2
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of chromatin factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (100)