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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Apc2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Adenomatous polyposis coli 2
Annotation Symbol
CG6193
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0026598
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 (Apc2) encodes one of two Drosophila APC family proteins. It is a key negative regulator of Wingless signaling, as a critical component of the destruction complex that phosphorylates beta-catenin and thus targets it for ubiquitination and proteasomal destruction. It is the primary APC family member during embryonic development, and functions redundantly with the product of Apc in adult development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
dAPC2, E-APC, D-APC2, APC
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,163,966..24,168,264 [+]
Recombination map
3-83
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BETA CATENIN DESTRUCTION COMPLEX -
The β-catenin destruction complex is a cytoplasmic protein complex that phosphorylates β-catenin, targeting it for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In the absence of Wnt signaling, the β-catenin destruction complex constitutively suppresses the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by preventing the accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm). (Adapted from FBrf0217546).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Apc2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Apc2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Supported by strand-specific RNA-Seq data.
Antisense (in part): overlaps CG5510 on opposite strand.
Gene model reviewed during 6.09
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084552
3538
1067
FBtr0445404
3979
1047
FBtr0445405
4039
1067
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083937
116.7
1067
5.67
FBpp0401578
114.3
1047
5.60
FBpp0401579
116.7
1067
5.67
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1067 aa isoforms: Apc2-PA, Apc2-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Apc2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (40 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:arm; FB:FBgn0000117
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dia; FB:FBgn0011202
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Kap3; FB:FBgn0028421
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (24 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (18 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Apc; FB:FBgn0015589
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with actin filament
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by CACAO )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
colocalizes_with cytoplasmic microtubule
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288612
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
distribution deduced from reporter or direct label
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
germline stem cell

Comment: at the cap cell niche interface

immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Apc2 protein was localized to the germline stem cell - cap cell niche interface.
Apc2 localizes to the surface of male germline stem cells facing the hub.
Apc2 protein is expressed in all embryonic cells, and at low levels in most larval tissues. In syncyctial blastoderms, Apc2 protein is localized to cortical actin caps that lie above each nucleus; costaining with antibodies to tubulin indicates at Apc2 protein does not bind direction to microtubules. As embryos cellularize, Apc2 protein delocalizes from the actin caps to become associated with membranes.
Apc2 protein is localized to the apical plasma membrane in the newly formed epithelium of celluarizing embryos.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with actin filament
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by CACAO )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Apc2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 55 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Apc2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Apc2
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
male germline stem cell & centrosome (with Apc2d40)
male germline stem cell & centrosome (with Apc2ΔS)
male germline stem cell & spindle (with Apc2d40)
male germline stem cell & spindle (with Apc2ΔS)
nurse cell & plasma membrane
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
5 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901IW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500B1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W008P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0086 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00D4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 4 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-83
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,163,966..24,168,264 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
95E6-95E6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Syx1A06737&P{PZ}Syx1A10660 and P{PZ}crb07207&P{PZ}BRWD305842
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
95F1-95F2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (15)
Genomic Clones (20)
cDNA Clones (139)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: Apc2 CG6193
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
Apc and Apc2 are required in intestinal stem cells in the adult midgut to regulate proliferation.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
Apc2 is a negative regulator of wg signaling in the embryonic epidermis.
Identification: Isolated in a yeast two hybrid screen that used arm protein as the bait.
Interference with Apc2 function causes phenotypes like those of sgg mutants.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 80 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Name Synonyms
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli 2
Adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor homolog 2
Epithelial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
adenomatous polyposis coli 2
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (234)