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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Fmr1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Fmr1
Annotation Symbol
CG6203
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0028734
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Fmr1 (Fmr1) encodes an RNA and channel binding protein. It acts as a neural growth brake regulating RNA trafficking, RNA translation and neuronal excitability. Fmr1 loss causes Fragile X syndrome. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

dfmr1, dFMRP, FMRP, dfxr, dfmr

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:10,101,420..10,110,121 [-]
Recombination map

3-49

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:10101420..10110121
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the FMR1 family. (Q9NFU0)
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Polyribosome-associated RNA-binding protein that plays a role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity through the regulation of protein synthesis of mRNAs (PubMed:11046149, PubMed:11733059, PubMed:12368261, PubMed:17178403). Plays a role as a negative translational regulator of specific mRNAs (PubMed:11733059, PubMed:17178403). Represses translation of the microtubule-associated protein futsch mRNA to regulate microtubule-dependent synaptic growth and function (PubMed:11733059). May also be involved in microRNA (miRNA)-mediated translational suppression as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) (PubMed:12368261, PubMed:14508492). Required for stability of the central pair of microtubules in the spermatid axoneme (PubMed:15183715). Regulates photoreceptor structure and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) neurotransmission in the eye (PubMed:11733059, PubMed:17178403). During embryogenesis, involved in germline fate determination (PubMed:16949822).
(UniProt, Q9NFU0)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

KH domain RNA-binding protein - homolog of mammalian Fragile X mental retardation gene - represses Futsch translation - mutants have synaptic structural defects

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
11
Number of Unique Polypeptides
8

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Fmr1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Fmr1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Unconventional translation start (CUG) postulated; FBrf0213401.

gene_with_start_codon_CUG ; SO:0001740

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Gene model reviewed during 6.04

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082197
3381
684
FBtr0082196
2266
529
FBtr0082198
4426
681
FBtr0082199
2967
681
FBtr0082200
3920
643
FBtr0301386
3773
646
FBtr0308123
4426
729
FBtr0335048
2266
577
FBtr0335049
3752
639
FBtr0347104
2985
681
FBtr0347105
2896
681
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081675
76.1
684
8.52
FBpp0081674
59.7
529
6.40
FBpp0081676
75.8
681
8.52
FBpp0081677
75.8
681
8.52
FBpp0081678
71.7
643
9.56
FBpp0290600
72.0
646
9.56
FBpp0300445
81.0
729
9.05
FBpp0307052
64.9
577
6.93
FBpp0307053
71.3
639
9.79
FBpp0312465
75.8
681
8.52
FBpp0312466
75.8
681
8.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

681 aa isoforms: Fmr1-PC, Fmr1-PD, Fmr1-PJ, Fmr1-PK
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer (PubMed:11046149). Interacts with AGO2, Dcr-1, Rm62, vig, RpL5 and RpL11; these interactions form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) complex involved in translation regulation (PubMed:12368261, PubMed:14508492). As part of the RISC complex, interacts with Tudor-SN (PubMed:14508492). Component of a neuronal RNP at least composed of Fmr1, tral and me31B (PubMed:17178403). Interacts with piwi and vas; these interactions occur in the polar granules (PubMed:16949822). Interacts with Sra-1 (PubMed:12818175). Associates with polyribosome (PubMed:12368261).

(UniProt, Q9NFU0)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Fmr1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (99 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P23128
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9W596
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VF87
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:piwi; FB:FBgn0004872
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:vas; FB:FBgn0283442
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VD44
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V426,UniProtKB:Q9VUQ5,UniProtKB:Q9W0S7
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rm62; FB:FBgn0003261
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:RpL11; FB:FBgn0013325
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Dcr-1; FB:FBgn0039016
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:RpL5; FB:FBgn0064225
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:AGO2; FB:FBgn0087035
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Dscam1; FB:FBgn0033159
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (74 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (66 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Capr; FB:FBgn0042134
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:mir-ban; FB:FBgn0262451
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Cbl; FB:FBgn0020224
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:rin; FB:FBgn0015778
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:lig; FB:FBgn0020279
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Capr; FB:FBgn0042134
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Cbl; FB:FBgn0020224
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Sra-1; FB:FBgn0038320
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:AGO2; FB:FBgn0087035
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: assayed 0-16 hr AEL; peak at 0-3 hr AEL for short isoform, 6-12 hr AEL for long isoform

Additional Descriptive Data

At embryonic stage 5 Fmr1 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels, and enriched in pole cells. By stage 9, expression is observed in the central nervous system and, at a lower level, in the somatic musculature. Expression increases in somatic musculature, and by stage 12 is visible in lateral stripes corresponding to the somatic muscles.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
cell fractionation
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
testis

Comment: NOT terminal epithelial cell of testis

testis

Comment: NOT terminal epithelial cell of testis

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: assayed 0-18 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

Fmr1 is expressed in repo-positive glia and elav-positive neurons as soon as 6-12 hours after larval hatching.

Fmr1 protein is distributed granularly in the cytoplasm of embryonic muscles, and is accumulated in the muscle tip, where the muscle attaches to the tendon cell.

Fmr1 protein expression is ubiquitous within neurons and relatively uniform between neurons throughout adult brain

The Fmr1 protein is cytoplasmic and present in discrete granules. Upon heat shock, Fmr1 protein concentrates in large cytoplasmic granules.

Fmr1 protein is expressed in the larval and adult testis. Expression is modest in spermatogonia, strong in spermatocytes, and undetectable in terminal epithelial cells of testis. Fmr1 protein is present at a low level in elongated spermatids, but absent in late-stage elongated spermatids.

Fmr1 protein expression is enriched in the brain. It is expressed specifically in neurons and is excluded from glia. In pupal and adult brains, it is expressed in most, if not all neurons.

The 85 kD band is detectable via Western blot at all embryonic stages and in S2 cells. THe 82 kD band is observed in S2 cells and in embryos colleced 9-12 hours AEL. Embryonic expression of Fmr1 protein is first detectable in the somatic musculature at embryonic stage 9. By stage 12, Fmr1 protein accumulates in the brain and ventral nerve cord. In late embryos high levels of expression are observed in the pharyngeal muscle, gonads, visceral muscle and hindgut. Expression is also observed in the tips of scolopidial dendrites in thoracic and abdominal segments, and at muscle attachment sites. In first instar larvae, the expression in scolopidial neurons extend to the entire scolopidial dendrite. In third instar larvae, expression persists in muscles, but is primarily localized to the central nervous system. Fmr1 protein is heavily expressed in the larval mushroom body, and accumulates in the cell bodies, dendrites, and axons of Kenyon cells. Expression is widespread in the ventral nerve cord, where it is cytoplasmically localized. In the larval testis, expression is localized cytoplasmically in spermatocytes, but is excluded from spermatogonia. In the eye disc, Fmr1 protein is observed at the morphogenetic furrow, in the axon of the Bolwig nerve, and in maturing ommatidia. Ommatidial expression appears to be restricted to photoreceptor cell R8.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:AGO2; FB:FBgn0087035
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Fmr1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 78 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 38 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Fmr1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Fmr1
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
dorsal cluster neuron & neurite
dorsal cluster neuron & neurite, with Scer\GAL4ato.3.6
dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1EP3517), with Scer\GAL4- :
dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1Δ50M)
dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1Δ113M)
dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1Δ113M), with Scer\GAL4- :
gamma-lobe & neuron | somatic clone
gamma-lobe & neuron | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4ey-OK107
germ cell & egg chamber
mushroom body & neuron & dendrite | somatic clone
mushroom body & neuron & dendrite | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4ey-OK107
mushroom body & neuron | somatic clone
mushroom body & neuron | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4ey-OK107
neuromuscular junction & synapse
neuromuscular junction & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
neuron & beta-lobe
neuron & beta-lobe, with Fmr13
neuron & beta-lobe, with Fmr1I244N
neuron & beta-lobe, with Fmr1I307N
neuron & beta-lobe (with Fmr13)
neuron & beta-lobe (with Fmr1I244N)
neuron & beta-lobe (with Fmr1I307N)
photoreceptor cell & synapse & lamina receptor cell
photoreceptor cell & synapse & lamina receptor cell, with Scer\GAL4hs.2sev
synapse & larval neuromuscular junction
ventral adult lateral neuron & commissure
ventral adult lateral neuron & commissure, with Scer\GAL4- :
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
11 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919067V )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503GG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06TP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06OZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08EZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 20 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 12 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
is ameliorated by dnc1
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer (PubMed:11046149). Interacts with AGO2, Dcr-1, Rm62, vig, RpL5 and RpL11; these interactions form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) complex involved in translation regulation (PubMed:12368261, PubMed:14508492). As part of the RISC complex, interacts with Tudor-SN (PubMed:14508492). Component of a neuronal RNP at least composed of Fmr1, tral and me31B (PubMed:17178403). Interacts with piwi and vas; these interactions occur in the polar granules (PubMed:16949822). Interacts with Sra-1 (PubMed:12818175). Associates with polyribosome (PubMed:12368261).
(UniProt, Q9NFU0 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-49

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:10,101,420..10,110,121 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
85F10-85F12
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}s2681 and P{EP}Fmr1EP3517&P{PZ}tws02414
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
85F9-85F12
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
85F9-85F12
85F12-85F13
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (21)
Genomic Clones (22)
cDNA Clones (103)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Fmr1 BcDNA:GM08679

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of Fmr1 BcDNA:GM08679 was a shared cDNA ( date:030206 ).

    Other Comments

    Fmr1 plays a developmentally restricted role in sculpting synaptic architecture in these neurons that cannot be compensated for by later reintroduction of the protein at maturity.

    Removal of Fmr1 results in the delay of onset of the premature LTF threshold caused by loss of mGluRA signaling at the synapse.

    Synaptic excitability is increased in the absence of Fmr1 while removal of mGluRA signaling restores synaptic excitability.

    One of 42 Drosophila genes identified as being most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to human Mental Retardation disorders.

    Fmr1 mutants exhibit developmental defects in the mushroom bodies, of which the most common is a failure of β-lobes to stop at the brain midline.

    Fmr1 mutants are highly sensitive to genetic background.

    Fmr1 is a negative regulator of neuronal architecture and synaptic differentiation.

    Fmr1 has a role in dendritic development.

    Mutant flies show normal central clock function, though have arrhythmic circadian activity and erratic patterns of locomotor activity and show failure to maintain courtship interest. Neurons required for normal circadian behavior show subtle abnormalities.

    Fmr1 plays a critical role in the circadian output pathway regulating locomotor activity.

    Fmr1 is required for normal neurite extension, guidance and branching. Based on mutant analysis Fmr1 differentially regulates diverse targets in the brain.

    Fmr1 mutants show strong eclosion failure and circadian rhythm defects. Different neuronal cell types show different phenotypes.

    Area matching Drosophila ESTS AA438987 and AA264877. These ESTs have sequence similarity to Human FXR1 gene.

    Fmr1 protein specifically binds futsch mRNA.

    Fmr1 acts as a translational repressor of futsch to regulate microtubule-dependent synaptic growth and function.

    Either loss or overexpression of Fmr1 or futsch have identical effects on synaptic transmission - elevation at the NMJ and suppression in photoreceptor cells.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 106 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (55)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:GM08679
    cg6203
    dfmr1
    (Bellosta and Soldano, 2019, Kang et al., 2019, Sears et al., 2019, Wang et al., 2019, Drozd et al., 2018, Hutson et al., 2018, Kerr et al., 2018, Weisz et al., 2018, Bienkowski et al., 2017, Doll et al., 2017, Franco et al., 2017, Heo et al., 2017, Kamimura and Maeda, 2017, Kennedy and Broadie, 2017, Koon and Chan, 2017, Monyak et al., 2017, Vita and Broadie, 2017, Zhang et al., 2017, Doll and Broadie, 2016, Günther et al., 2016, Jiang et al., 2016, Choi et al., 2015, Doll and Broadie, 2015, Myrick et al., 2015, Okray et al., 2015, Weisz et al., 2015, Andlauer et al., 2014, Gatto et al., 2014, Friedman et al., 2013, Gareau et al., 2013, McBride et al., 2013, Okray and Hassan, 2013, Staples and Broadie, 2013, Xu et al., 2013, Coffee et al., 2012, Jakubowski et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Xu et al., 2012, Beerman and Jongens, 2011, Gatto and Broadie, 2011, Mines and Jope, 2011, Schachter and Boulianne, 2011, Siller and Broadie, 2011, Tessier and Broadie, 2011, Yao et al., 2011, Banerjee et al., 2010, Bolduc et al., 2010, Coffee et al., 2010, Lloyd and Taylor, 2010, McBride et al., 2010, Monzo et al., 2010, D'Hulst et al., 2009, Darnell et al., 2009, Pepper et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2009, Banerjee et al., 2008, Bhogal and Jongens, 2008, Gatto and Broadie, 2008, Monzo et al., 2008, Pan et al., 2008, Reeve et al., 2008, Sekine et al., 2008, Sofola et al., 2008, Xu et al., 2008, Banerjee et al., 2007, Bhogal and Jongens, 2007, Kelley et al., 2007, Olson et al., 2007, Pan and Broadie, 2007, Pepper and Jongens, 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Yang et al., 2007, Zaratiegui, 2007, Beerman and Jongens, 2006, Bhogal and Jongens, 2006, Deshpande et al., 2006, Jongens et al., 2006, Pepper and Jongens, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Bettencourt da Cruz et al., 2005, Costa et al., 2005, Dell, 2005, Dolen and Bear, 2005, McBride et al., 2005, Reeve, 2005, Reeve et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2005, Zhang and Broadie, 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Inlow and Restifo, 2004, Michel et al., 2004, Reeve et al., 2004, Xu et al., 2004, Jin and Warren, 2003, Dockendorff et al., 2002, Gao, 2002, Rusch et al., 2002, Dockendorff et al., 2001, Wan et al., 2000)
    Name Synonyms
    Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein
    Fragile X Mental Retardation
    Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein
    Fragile X mental retardation
    Fragile X mental retardation 1
    Fragile X mental retardation gene
    Fragile X mental retardation protein
    Fragile X mental retardation protein 1
    Fragile X mental retardation related 1
    Fragile X protein
    Fragile X related protein
    Fragile X-related
    Fragile-X Mental Retardation 1
    Fragile-X Mental Retardation protein
    Fragile-X mental retardation protein
    cg 6203 gene product from transcript cg6203-rc
    fragile X
    fragile X mental retardation protein
    fragile X protein
    fragile X retardation 1 protein
    fragile x related
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0037787
    • FBgn0047258
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
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    References (423)