General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Fmr1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Fmr1
Annotation Symbol
CG6203
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0028734
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Fmr1 is an RNA and channel binding protein. It acts as a neural growth brake regulating RNA trafficking, RNA translation and neuronal excitability. Fmr1 loss causes Fragile X syndrome. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
dfmr1, FMRP, dFMRP, dfxr, dfmr
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:10,101,420..10,110,121 [-]
Recombination map
3-49
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the FMR1 family. (Q9NFU0)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Polyribosome-associated RNA-binding protein that plays a role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity through the regulation of protein synthesis of mRNAs (PubMed:11046149, PubMed:11733059, PubMed:12368261). Plays a role as a negative translational regulator of specific mRNAs (PubMed:11733059). Represses translation of the microtubule-associated protein futsch mRNA to regulate microtubule-dependent synaptic growth and function (PubMed:11733059). May also be involved in microRNA (miRNA)-mediated translational suppression as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) (PubMed:12368261, PubMed:14508492). Required for stability of the central pair of microtubules in the spermatid axoneme (PubMed:15183715). Regulates photoreceptor structure and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) neurotransmission in the eye (PubMed:11733059). During embryogenesis, involved in germline fate determination (PubMed:16949822).
(UniProt, Q9NFU0)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
11
Number of Unique Polypeptides
8

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Fmr1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Fmr1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Unconventional translation start (CUG) postulated; FBrf0213401.
gene_with_start_codon_CUG ; SO:0001740
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Gene model reviewed during 6.04
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082197
3381
684
FBtr0082196
2266
529
FBtr0082198
4426
681
FBtr0082199
2967
681
FBtr0082200
3920
643
FBtr0301386
3773
646
FBtr0308123
4426
729
FBtr0335048
2266
577
FBtr0335049
3752
639
FBtr0347104
2985
681
FBtr0347105
2896
681
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081675
76.1
684
8.52
FBpp0081674
59.7
529
6.40
FBpp0081676
75.8
681
8.52
FBpp0081677
75.8
681
8.52
FBpp0081678
71.7
643
9.56
FBpp0290600
72.0
646
9.56
FBpp0300445
81.0
729
9.05
FBpp0307052
64.9
577
6.93
FBpp0307053
71.3
639
9.79
FBpp0312465
75.8
681
8.52
FBpp0312466
75.8
681
8.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

681 aa isoforms: Fmr1-PC, Fmr1-PD, Fmr1-PJ, Fmr1-PK
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer (PubMed:11046149). Interacts with AGO2, Dcr-1, Rm62, vig, RpL5 and RpL11; these interactions form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) complex involved in translation regulation (PubMed:12368261, PubMed:14508492). As part of the RISC complex, interacts with Tudor-SN (PubMed:14508492). Interacts with piwi and vas; these interactions occur in the polar granules (PubMed:16949822). Interacts with Sra-1 (PubMed:12818175). Associates with polyribosome (PubMed:12368261).
(UniProt, Q9NFU0)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Fmr1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (93 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P23128
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9W596
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VF87
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:piwi; FB:FBgn0004872
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:vas; FB:FBgn0283442
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VD44
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V426,UniProtKB:Q9VUQ5,UniProtKB:Q9W0S7
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rm62; FB:FBgn0003261
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:RpL11; FB:FBgn0013325
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Dcr-1; FB:FBgn0039016
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:RpL5; FB:FBgn0064225
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:AGO2; FB:FBgn0087035
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Dscam1; FB:FBgn0033159
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (69 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (60 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Capr; FB:FBgn0042134
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ban; FB:FBgn0262451
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Cbl; FB:FBgn0020224
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:rin; FB:FBgn0015778
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:lig; FB:FBgn0020279
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Capr; FB:FBgn0042134
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Cbl; FB:FBgn0020224
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Sra-1; FB:FBgn0038320
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:AGO2; FB:FBgn0087035
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063980
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001318100
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: assayed 0-16 hr AEL; peak at 0-3 hr AEL for short isoform, 6-12 hr AEL for long isoform

Additional Descriptive Data
At embryonic stage 5 Fmr1 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels, and enriched in pole cells. By stage 9, expression is observed in the central nervous system and, at a lower level, in the somatic musculature. Expression increases in somatic musculature, and by stage 12 is visible in lateral stripes corresponding to the somatic muscles.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
cell fractionation
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
testis

Comment: NOT terminal epithelial cell of testis

testis

Comment: NOT terminal epithelial cell of testis

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: assayed 0-18 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Fmr1 protein is distributed granularly in the cytoplasm of embryonic muscles, and is accumulated in the muscle tip, where the muscle attaches to the tendon cell.
Fmr1 protein expression is ubiquitous within neurons and relatively uniform between neurons throughout adult brain
The Fmr1 protein is cytoplasmic and present in discrete granules. Upon heat shock, Fmr1 protein concentrates in large cytoplasmic granules.
Fmr1 protein is expressed in the larval and adult testis. Expression is modest in spermatogonia, strong in spermatocytes, and undetectable in terminal epithelial cells of testis. Fmr1 protein is present at a low level in elongated spermatids, but absent in late-stage elongated spermatids.
Fmr1 protein expression is enriched in the brain. It is expressed specifically in neurons and is excluded from glia. In pupal and adult brains, it is expressed in most, if not all neurons.
The 85 kD band is detectable via Western blot at all embryonic stages and in S2 cells. THe 82 kD band is observed in S2 cells and in embryos colleced 9-12 hours AEL. Embryonic expression of Fmr1 protein is first detectable in the somatic musculature at embryonic stage 9. By stage 12, Fmr1 protein accumulates in the brain and ventral nerve cord. In late embryos high levels of expression are observed in the pharyngeal muscle, gonads, visceral muscle and hindgut. Expression is also observed in the tips of scolopidial dendrites in thoracic and abdominal segments, and at muscle attachment sites. In first instar larvae, the expression in scolopidial neurons extend to the entire scolopidial dendrite. In third instar larvae, expression persists in muscles, but is primarily localized to the central nervous system. Fmr1 protein is heavily expressed in the larval mushroom body, and accumulates in the cell bodies, dendrites, and axons of Kenyon cells. Expression is widespread in the ventral nerve cord, where it is cytoplasmically localized. In the larval testis, expression is localized cytoplasmically in spermatocytes, but is excluded from spermatogonia. In the eye disc, Fmr1 protein is observed at the morphogenetic furrow, in the axon of the Bolwig nerve, and in maturing ommatidia. Ommatidial expression appears to be restricted to photoreceptor cell R8.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:AGO2; FB:FBgn0087035
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Fmr1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 77 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Fmr1
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 37 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Fmr1
    Allele of Fmr1
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Fmr1
    characterization construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    dorsal cluster neuron & neurite
    dorsal cluster neuron & neurite, with Scer\GAL4ato.3.6
    dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1EP3517), with Scer\GAL4- :
    dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1Δ50M)
    dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1Δ113M)
    dorsal cluster neuron & neurite (with Fmr1Δ113M), with Scer\GAL4- :
    gamma-lobe & neuron | somatic clone
    gamma-lobe & neuron | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4ey-OK107
    germ cell & egg chamber
    mushroom body & neuron & dendrite | somatic clone
    mushroom body & neuron & dendrite | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4ey-OK107
    mushroom body & neuron | somatic clone
    mushroom body & neuron | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4ey-OK107
    neuromuscular junction & synapse
    neuromuscular junction & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
    neuron & beta-lobe
    neuron & beta-lobe, with Fmr13
    neuron & beta-lobe, with Fmr1I244N
    neuron & beta-lobe, with Fmr1I307N
    neuron & beta-lobe (with Fmr13)
    neuron & beta-lobe (with Fmr1I244N)
    neuron & beta-lobe (with Fmr1I307N)
    photoreceptor cell & synapse & lamina receptor cell
    photoreceptor cell & synapse & lamina receptor cell, with Scer\GAL4hs.2sev
    synapse & larval neuromuscular junction
    ventral adult lateral neuron & commissure
    ventral adult lateral neuron & commissure, with Scer\GAL4- :
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    13 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
     
     
    13 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
     
     
    11 of 15
    No
    Yes
     
     
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    13 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    12 of 15
    No
    Yes
    11 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
    10 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    10 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    6 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
    10 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    10 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    9 of 15
    No
    Yes
    9 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919067V )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503GG )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06TP )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06OZ )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08EZ )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 20 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    in combination with Fmr13
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    in combination with Fmr1Δ83M
    in combination with Fmr1FS
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    in combination with Fmr13
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    model of  Down syndrome
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    model of  Down syndrome
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    Interactions ( 12 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    is ameliorated by dnc1
    Comments ( 1 )
     
    Expression of Fmr1GD1288 results in learning and memory defects reminiscent of those observed in fragile X syndrome patients.
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer (PubMed:11046149). Interacts with AGO2, Dcr-1, Rm62, vig, RpL5 and RpL11; these interactions form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) complex involved in translation regulation (PubMed:12368261, PubMed:14508492). As part of the RISC complex, interacts with Tudor-SN (PubMed:14508492). Interacts with piwi and vas; these interactions occur in the polar granules (PubMed:16949822). Interacts with Sra-1 (PubMed:12818175). Associates with polyribosome (PubMed:12368261).
    (UniProt, Q9NFU0 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-49
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:10,101,420..10,110,121 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    85F10-85F12
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}s2681 and P{EP}Fmr1EP3517&P{PZ}tws02414
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    85F9-85F12
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    85F9-85F12
    85F12-85F13
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (21)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (103)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Fmr1 BcDNA:GM08679
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of Fmr1 BcDNA:GM08679 was a shared cDNA ( date:030206 ).
      Other Comments
      Fmr1 plays a developmentally restricted role in sculpting synaptic architecture in these neurons that cannot be compensated for by later reintroduction of the protein at maturity.
      Removal of Fmr1 results in the delay of onset of the premature LTF threshold caused by loss of mGluRA signaling at the synapse.
      Synaptic excitability is increased in the absence of Fmr1 while removal of mGluRA signaling restores synaptic excitability.
      One of 42 Drosophila genes identified as being most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to human Mental Retardation disorders.
      Fmr1 mutants exhibit developmental defects in the mushroom bodies, of which the most common is a failure of β-lobes to stop at the brain midline.
      Fmr1 mutants are highly sensitive to genetic background.
      Fmr1 is a negative regulator of neuronal architecture and synaptic differentiation.
      Fmr1 has a role in dendritic development.
      Mutant flies show normal central clock function, though have arrhythmic circadian activity and erratic patterns of locomotor activity and show failure to maintain courtship interest. Neurons required for normal circadian behavior show subtle abnormalities.
      Fmr1 plays a critical role in the circadian output pathway regulating locomotor activity.
      Fmr1 is required for normal neurite extension, guidance and branching. Based on mutant analysis Fmr1 differentially regulates diverse targets in the brain.
      Fmr1 mutants show strong eclosion failure and circadian rhythm defects. Different neuronal cell types show different phenotypes.
      Area matching Drosophila ESTS AA438987 and AA264877. These ESTs have sequence similarity to Human FXR1 gene.
      Fmr1 protein specifically binds futsch mRNA.
      Fmr1 acts as a translational repressor of futsch to regulate microtubule-dependent synaptic growth and function.
      Either loss or overexpression of Fmr1 or futsch have identical effects on synaptic transmission - elevation at the NMJ and suppression in photoreceptor cells.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 101 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (55)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BcDNA:GM08679
      cg6203
      dfmr1
      (Drozd et al., 2018, Hutson et al., 2018, Kerr et al., 2018, Weisz et al., 2018, Bienkowski et al., 2017, Doll et al., 2017, Franco et al., 2017, Heo et al., 2017, Kamimura and Maeda, 2017, Kennedy and Broadie, 2017, Koon and Chan, 2017, Vita and Broadie, 2017, Zhang et al., 2017, Doll and Broadie, 2016, Günther et al., 2016, Jiang et al., 2016, Choi et al., 2015, Doll and Broadie, 2015, Myrick et al., 2015, Okray et al., 2015, Weisz et al., 2015, Andlauer et al., 2014, Gatto et al., 2014, Friedman et al., 2013, Gareau et al., 2013, McBride et al., 2013, Okray and Hassan, 2013, Staples and Broadie, 2013, Xu et al., 2013, Coffee et al., 2012, Jakubowski et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Xu et al., 2012, Beerman and Jongens, 2011, Gatto and Broadie, 2011, Mines and Jope, 2011, Schachter and Boulianne, 2011, Siller and Broadie, 2011, Tessier and Broadie, 2011, Yao et al., 2011, Banerjee et al., 2010, Bolduc et al., 2010, Coffee et al., 2010, McBride et al., 2010, Monzo et al., 2010, D'Hulst et al., 2009, Darnell et al., 2009, Pepper et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2009, Banerjee et al., 2008, Bhogal and Jongens, 2008, Gatto and Broadie, 2008, Monzo et al., 2008, Pan et al., 2008, Reeve et al., 2008, Sekine et al., 2008, Sofola et al., 2008, Xu et al., 2008, Banerjee et al., 2007, Bhogal and Jongens, 2007, Kelley et al., 2007, Olson et al., 2007, Pan and Broadie, 2007, Pepper and Jongens, 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Yang et al., 2007, Zaratiegui, 2007, Beerman and Jongens, 2006, Bhogal and Jongens, 2006, Deshpande et al., 2006, Jongens et al., 2006, Pepper and Jongens, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Bettencourt da Cruz et al., 2005, Costa et al., 2005, Dell, 2005, Dolen and Bear, 2005, McBride et al., 2005, Reeve, 2005, Reeve et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2005, Zhang and Broadie, 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Inlow and Restifo, 2004, Michel et al., 2004, Reeve et al., 2004, Xu et al., 2004, Jin and Warren, 2003, Dockendorff et al., 2002, Gao, 2002, Rusch et al., 2002, Dockendorff et al., 2001, Wan et al., 2000)
      Name Synonyms
      Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein
      Fragile X Mental Retardation
      Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein
      Fragile X mental retardation
      Fragile X mental retardation 1
      Fragile X mental retardation gene
      Fragile X mental retardation protein
      Fragile X mental retardation protein 1
      Fragile X mental retardation related 1
      Fragile X protein
      Fragile X related protein
      Fragile X-related
      Fragile-X Mental Retardation 1
      Fragile-X Mental Retardation protein
      Fragile-X mental retardation protein
      cg 6203 gene product from transcript cg6203-rc
      fragile X
      fragile X mental retardation protein
      fragile X protein
      fragile X retardation 1 protein
      fragile x related
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0037787
      • FBgn0047258
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (396)