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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\trbl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
tribbles
Annotation Symbol
CG5408
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0028978
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
tribbles (trbl) encodes the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like proteins. It contributes to cell growth, cell migration and metabolism. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
trb
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:20,396,288..20,401,609 [-]
Recombination map
3-47
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Tribbles subfamily. (Q9V3Z1)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CALCIUM/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES -
The Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent kinase family are serine/threonine kinases which, in general, prefer substrates containing basic residues. Many, but not all, members are regulated by calcium or calmodulin. (Adapted from FBrf0132098).
PUTATIVE PSEUDOKINASES -
Pseudokinases have protein kinase domains but lack key residue(s) classically required for phosphotransfer. Although potentially lacking catalytic activity, pseudokinases may still have roles in signalling cascades and complexes. (Adapted from FBrf0209106, PMID:21074407 and PMID:23863165).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Adapter protein that negatively regulates different signaling pathways to coordinate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and growth (PubMed:10837248, PubMed:10850493, PubMed:10850494, PubMed:10949024, PubMed:23305818, PubMed:25329475). Functions by binding to key regulatory proteins and either blocks their activity or regulates their turnover by the proteasome (PubMed:10837248, PubMed:10850493, PubMed:10850494, PubMed:10949024, PubMed:23305818, PubMed:25329475). In various developing tissues functions as a cell cycle regulator that mediates cell proliferation according to the requirements of the developmental program (PubMed:10850493, PubMed:10850494, PubMed:10837248, PubMed:15581871). Acts by inducing the proteasomal degradation of the CD25 mitotic activators stg and twe at critical stages of development to delay entry into mitosis and thus mediate cell proliferation (PubMed:10850493, PubMed:10850494, PubMed:10837248, PubMed:15581871, PubMed:23290551, PubMed:29025897). During gastrulation, negatively regulates stg to delay mitosis in the ventral region of the embryonic mesoderm thus allowing invagination to be completed before cell division takes place (PubMed:10837248, PubMed:10850493, PubMed:10850494). Delaying stg-dependent mitosis during bristle development and in migrating germline pole cells also arrests their cell divisions, whereas in cystocytes it promotes their cell divisions (PubMed:10837248, PubMed:10850493, PubMed:15581871). Involved in the regulation of the mid-blastula transition; promotes the destruction of twe resulting in the cell cycle arrest in G2 of cycle 14 which delays mitosis and thus reduces cell proliferation allowing cell fate specification and morphogenesis to take place (PubMed:23290551). In germline cells, blocks border cell migration during oogenesis by binding to slbo/C/EBP and promoting its ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:23305818, PubMed:10949024, PubMed:29025897). May function in a negative feedback loop with slbo to coordinate proper border cell migration (PubMed:23305818). During tissue growth negatively regulates insulin signaling by binding to Akt1 and blocking its phosphorylation-dependent activation (PubMed:25329475, PubMed:29025897). However it may also function downstream in the insulin signaling pathway, acting with Akt1 to direct foxo degradation (PubMed:25329475). Essential for the proper formation of operant place and aversive olfactory memories (PubMed:18430923, PubMed:28669782).
(UniProt, Q9V3Z1)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
serine/threonine kinase-like domain protein - regulates cell cycle - Tribbles pseudokinase is necessary for proper memory formation
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\trbl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\trbl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078235
2372
484
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077893
54.1
484
5.13
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with slbo (PubMed:10949024). Interacts with Akt1 (PubMed:29025897, PubMed:25329475).
(UniProt, Q9V3Z1)
Domain
The protein kinase domain is predicted to be catalytically inactive.
(UniProt, Q9V3Z1)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\trbl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (19 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121144
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:16228
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121144
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121144
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression pattern inferred from unspecified enhancer trap line.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
trbl is expressed with high levels in the main body follicle cells, and at low levels in the centripetaly migrating follicle cells and the border follicle cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\trbl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 26 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 24 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of trbl
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of trbl
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
7 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907PV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150BU6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03X8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03U7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with slbo (PubMed:10949024). Interacts with Akt1 (PubMed:29025897, PubMed:25329475).
(UniProt, Q9V3Z1 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-47
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:20,396,288..20,401,609 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
77C1-77C1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}eRF100103 and P{EP}trblEP3519
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
77C1-77C2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (24)
Genomic Clones (12)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (183)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: trbl CG5408
Additional comments
Source for merge of trbl CG5408 was sequence comparison ( date:000516 ).
Other Comments
trbl is required for turnover of slbo during border follicle cell migration.
When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, an increase in the proportion of G1 phase cells, a whole range of mitotic abnormalities and spindle abnormalities are seen.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
This locus may be part of a mechanism that inhibits mitosis in the ventral furrow region as long as the morphogenetic movement takes place.
In eggs that are deficient for this locus, the ventral cells divide even before the cells of the mitotic domain one, which are the first cells to go into the (first) zygotically controlled mitosis in wild-type eggs.
trbl is required for the ventral inhibition of mitosis that acts during gastrulation to counteract stg specifically in the cells that invaginate to form the mesoderm.
In embryos lacking trbl function, cells in the ventral domain are the first to enter mitosis, such that their pattern of stg RNA expression and the mitotic pattern match each other.
trbl specifically regulates stg protein turnover.
Mutations in trbl cause premature division in the embryonic mesoderm anlage and gastrulation defects.
trbl is involved in directing the timing of mitosis in the mesoderm.
In trbl mutant embryos the mesoderm becomes the first domain to divide, now following stg instructions just like every other domain does. The consequence of this premature division is a strong gastrulation phenotype. The trbl phenotype is caused solely by untimely mitosis.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
The gene is named "tribbles" after the multiplying "tribbles" in "Star Trek".
The gene tribbles is named after the fictional small round organisms that proliferate uncontrollably when they contact water.
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0036983
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (128)