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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pink1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
PTEN-induced putative kinase 1
Annotation Symbol
CG4523
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0029891
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (Pink1) is the ortholog of human PINK1, a gene mutated in autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Pink1 encodes a mitochondrially targeted Ser-Thr kinase. It has been linked to a number of cellular functions including altering mitochondrial dynamics, the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria, and the proper function of Complex I of the electron transport chain. [Date last reviewed: 2018-10-11]
Also Known As

dPINK1, Pink

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:6,683,798..6,687,302 [+]
Recombination map

1-18

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:6683798..6687302
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (37 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Mitofilin; FB:FBgn0019960
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:rho-7; FB:FBgn0033672
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Pgam5; FB:FBgn0023517
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000540563
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121970
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (28 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (27 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Drp1; FB:FBgn0026479
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Marf; FB:FBgn0029870
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Opa1; FB:FBgn0261276
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by BHF-UCL )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121970
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121970
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000540563
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121970
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001121970
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER CONVENTIONAL PROTEIN KINASE DOMAIN KINASES -
The group of 'other conventional protein kinase domain kinases' consists of kinases with a conventional eukaryotic protein kinase domain that do not fit into any of the other major groups. This grouping is described in FBrf0201870.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

promotes mitochondrial fragmentation by targeting core components of the mitochondrial morphogenesis machinery for ubiquitination - negatively regulates mitochondrial fusion - a fruitfly model for Parkinson's disease

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
9
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pink1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070956
2859
721
FBtr0070957
2779
721
FBtr0100413
2865
721
FBtr0100414
2773
721
FBtr0100415
2864
721
FBtr0100416
3158
721
FBtr0100419
2921
721
FBtr0100420
2894
721
FBtr0345295
2411
721
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070917
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0070918
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0099830
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0099831
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0099832
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0099833
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0099835
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0099837
80.2
721
8.18
FBpp0311462
80.2
721
8.18
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pink1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pink1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 10 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 43 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Pink1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Pink1
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Partially disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
dopamine neuron & adult brain
dopamine neuron & adult brain, with Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL
dopamine neuron & adult brain, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
mitochondrial crista & indirect flight muscle
mitochondrial inner membrane & indirect flight muscle
mitochondrial outer membrane & indirect flight muscle
mitochondrion & dopamine neuron & adult brain
mitochondrion & dopaminergic neuron
mitochondrion & dorso-lateral dopaminergic neuron
mitochondrion & dorso-lateral dopaminergic neuron, with Scer\GAL4ple.PF
mitochondrion & indirect flight muscle
myofibril & indirect flight muscle
photoreceptor & neuron, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
8  
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903X1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915029G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0226 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08OB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03V6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 7 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 11 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
is ameliorated by mask10.22
is ameliorated by maskEY13048
is ameliorated by maskKK100529
is ameliorated by maskHMS01045
is exacerbated by ShmtGD8851
is ameliorated by Lrrke03680
is ameliorated by ParpCH1
is ameliorated by STUB1UAS.cCa
is ameliorated by Opa1s3475
is ameliorated by Opa1f02779
is ameliorated by mAcon11
is ameliorated by GstO2A.UAS
is ameliorated by Ucp4AUAS.cWa
is ameliorated by dj-1βC45A.UAS
is ameliorated by dj-1βUAS.cMa
is ameliorated by DJ-1αUAS.cUa
is ameliorated by Pink1UAS.cUa
is ameliorated by MiroKK102189
is ameliorated by MiroJF02775
is exacerbated by MiroUAS.cGa
is ameliorated by miltJF03022
is ameliorated by KhcJF01939
is ameliorated by Sirt1UAS.cGa
is ameliorated by Sirt1EP2300
is ameliorated by foxoUAS.cKd
is ameliorated by Sod2UAS.cUa
is ameliorated by cluUASp.cSa
is ameliorated by Trap1D6
is ameliorated by Trap1EY21851
is ameliorated by PEKGD5584
is ameliorated by ND-42SA.UAS
is exacerbated by heix1
is exacerbated by heix2
is exacerbated by heixk11403
is exacerbated by heixNP5301
is ameliorated by Pgam5NP0568
is ameliorated by Pgam51
is ameliorated by Trap1UAS.cCa
is exacerbated by rictorJF01370
is ameliorated by trcS292E.UAS.L
is ameliorated by rictorUAS.cHa
is ameliorated by trcL.UAS
is NOT ameliorated by RetMEN2B.UAS
is ameliorated by RetMEN2B.UAS
is ameliorated by RetMEN2B.UAS
is NOT ameliorated by RetMEN2B.UAS
is ameliorated by dnkUAS.cLa
is ameliorated by TER94UAS.cRa
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-18

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:6,683,798..6,687,302 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
6C6-6C6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Ctr1AEP1364&P{EP}EP1445 and P{EP}C3GEP1613
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (15)
Genomic Clones (12)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (198)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 

polyclonal

Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: Pink1 CG4523

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: CG4523 BEST:GH23468

Additional comments
Other Comments

Mutants are viable but sterile. Mutant spermatids form abnormal Nebenkerns and mitochondrial derivatives and subsequently fail to individualize the 64-cell cyst into discrete sperm. Mutants show increased sensitivity to paraquat and hyperoxia and have heldup wings due to degeneration of indirect flight muscle.

Pink1 is required for normal mitochondrial function.

Mutants show a number of degenerative phenotypes which are due to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Pink1 plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism and exerts an impact on lifespan.

Pink1 plays a critical role in promoting dopaminergic neuronal function and survival.

Pink1 mutants exhibit age-dependent muscle degeneration characterised by extensive DNA fragmentation, probably indicative of cell death.

Pink1 is required for maintaining proper mitochondria morphology and the integrity of suets of muscle cells and dopaminergic neurons.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 65 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BEST:GH23468
PINK1
(Xu et al., 2020, Baroli et al., 2019, Dalla Vecchia et al., 2019, Kim et al., 2019, von Stockum et al., 2019, Basso et al., 2018, Course et al., 2018, Dung and Thao, 2018, Himmelberg et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Xiong and Yu, 2018, Meng et al., 2017, Molina-Mateo et al., 2017, Shiba-Fukushima et al., 2017, Yang et al., 2017, Zhang et al., 2017, Zhu et al., 2017, Ding et al., 2016, Kandul et al., 2016, Kim et al., 2016, Li et al., 2016, Voigt et al., 2016, Von Stockum et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Gehrke et al., 2015, Khalil et al., 2015, Sen et al., 2015, Vos et al., 2015, West et al., 2015, Hwang et al., 2014, Ivatt et al., 2014, Jansen et al., 2014, Mulakkal et al., 2014, Poddighe et al., 2014, Shiba-Fukushima et al., 2014, Shiba-Fukushima et al., 2014, Thomas et al., 2014, Tsai et al., 2014, Yun et al., 2014, Burchell et al., 2013, Kim and Yim, 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Lenz et al., 2013, Owusu-Ansah et al., 2013, Poddighe et al., 2013, Vincow et al., 2013, Wu et al., 2013, Guo, 2012, Ishida et al., 2012, Koh et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Nezis, 2012, Muñoz-Soriano and Paricio, 2011, Liu and Lu, 2010, Poole et al., 2010, Ziviani et al., 2010, Lutz et al., 2009, Park et al., 2009, Tain et al., 2009, Venderova et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2008, Poole et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2007, Tain et al., 2007, Todd and Staveley, 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Bier, 2006, Biskup, 2006, Lin and Beal, 2006, Maricich and Zoghbi, 2006, Pallanck and Greenamyre, 2006, Park et al., 2006, Park et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006)
Name Synonyms
PTEN induced putative kinase 1
PTEN-Induced Kinase 1
PTEN-induced Putative Kinase 1
PTEN-induced kinase 1
Pten-induced kinase 1(PINK1)
phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0046284
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (263)