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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\slpr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
slipper
Annotation Symbol
CG2272
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0030018
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
dMLK, MLK2, MLK, JNKKK
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:8,170,229..8,177,185 [-]
Recombination map
1-22
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase kinase kinase subfamily. (Q95UN8)
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-Related Signaling Pathway Core Components -
PDGF/VEGF-receptor related (Pvr) encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by the binding of PDGF- and VEGF-related factors (Pvf1,Pvf2 or Pvf3). Pvr has been shown to activate the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade, the PI3K kinase pathway, TORC1 (FBrf0222697), Rho family small GTPases (FBrf0221764, FBrf0180198) and the JNK cascade (FBrf0180198), in a context-dependent manner. (Adapted from FBrf0222697 and FBrf0221727).
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NON-RECEPTOR TLK KINASES -
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) kinases are a diverse group of intracellular serine-threonine protein kinases with sequence similarity to tyrosine kinases (TK) but lacking TK-specific motifs.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Activates the JUN N-terminal pathway during dorsal closure.
(UniProt, Q95UN8)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
mixed lineage kinase - signal transduction protein conveying information about changes in cytoskeleton to the nucleus - regulates dorsal closure - controls cell fate and cell sheet morphogenesis during embryogenesis
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\slpr or the JBrowse view of Dmel\slpr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071184
5144
1148
FBtr0303842
5165
1155
FBtr0303843
5594
1148
FBtr0303844
4945
1148
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
5-6 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0099601
127.6
1148
6.99
FBpp0292850
128.5
1155
6.93
FBpp0292851
127.6
1148
6.99
FBpp0292852
127.6
1148
6.99
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1148 aa isoforms: slpr-PA, slpr-PC, slpr-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, Q95UN8)
Post Translational Modification
Autophosphorylation on serine and threonine residues within the activation loop plays a role in enzyme activation.
(UniProt, Q95UN8)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\slpr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (19 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:6849
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:6850
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001147669
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q16584
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Jra; FB:FBgn0001291
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rac1; FB:FBgn0010333
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:puc; FB:FBgn0243512
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001147669
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q16584
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Transcript was detected strongly in 0-4 h embryos suggesting that it was maternally deposited. Expression steadily decreased throughout embryogenesis until no transcript was detectable by stage 16. Expression was also detected in the adult head and thorax but not the abdomen.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\slpr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 25 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of slpr
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of slpr
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (21)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (21)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (14)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (18)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (20)
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919022I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502F0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W027L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0250 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0JNI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer.
    (UniProt, Q95UN8 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-Related Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    PDGF/VEGF-receptor related (Pvr) encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by the binding of PDGF- and VEGF-related factors (Pvf1,Pvf2 or Pvf3). Pvr has been shown to activate the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade, the PI3K kinase pathway, TORC1 (FBrf0222697), Rho family small GTPases (FBrf0221764, FBrf0180198) and the JNK cascade (FBrf0180198), in a context-dependent manner. (Adapted from FBrf0222697 and FBrf0221727).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-22
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:8,170,229..8,177,185 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    7D17-7D17
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG1583EP1516&P{EP}CG1583EP325 and P{EP}sdtEP1143
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (21)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (40)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: Mlk2 CG2272
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    RNAi experiments show that dsRNA targetted at this gene suppresses the Pten-dsRNA-induced cell shape changes in Kc167 cells.
    The kinase activity of slpr protein can be activated by C6-ceramide or sphingomyelinase in vivo, and by nM concentrations of natural ceramide in vitro.
    slpr is necessary for the ceramide induced activation of the kinase activity of bsk.
    slpr encodes a Jun kinase kinase kinase.
    slpr is required in the JNK signaling pathway during dorsal closure and acts downstream of Rac1 and upstream of bsk.
    slpr acts upstream of dpp in the JNK pathway.
    Mutant embryos have a "dorsal-open" phenotype. The leading edge cells of the epidermis stretch transiently in the dorso-ventral axis, but the elongation is not maintained and the epidermis ultimately retracts.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    The gene is named "slipper" after the mutant phenotype; embryonic cuticles resemble an open shoe.
    The gene is named after the cuticles of mutant embryos, which resemble an open shoe, like a ballet slipper.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Reported As
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0026171
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (106)