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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\upd2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
unpaired 2
Annotation Symbol
CG5988
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0030904
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
unpaired 2 (upd2) encodes a secreted molecule that acts at a distance as a ligand for the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. upd2 mutants are viable due to redundancy with other Upd-family genes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

Upd, upd-2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:18,240,654..18,243,284 [-]
Recombination map

1-60

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:18240654..18243284
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
UNPAIRED FAMILY -
The Unpaired (UPD) family encodes the only known cytokines capable of activating the JAK/STAT pathway in D.mel, by binding the receptor dome. This pathway is involved in cell proliferation, embryonic development and stem cell maintenance. (Adapted from FBrf0232479, FBrf0213113 and FBrf0219535).
Pathway (FlyBase)
JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor leading to receptor dimerization and the intracellular activation of a Janus kinase (JAK) family member. JAK phosphorylates cytoplasmic STAT family members which dimerize, translocate into the nucleus and regulate target gene expression. In Drosophila, the core pathway is limited to three ligands (the Unpaired family of cytokines), a single receptor (dome), JAK kinase (hop) and STAT (Stat92E). (Adapted from FBrf0225259).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\upd2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\upd2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Gene model reviewed during 6.23

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0473620
1980
406
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0423083
45.6
406
9.75
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\upd2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dome; FB:FBgn0043903
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hop; FB:FBgn0004864
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Stat92E; FB:FBgn0016917
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Socs36E; FB:FBgn0041184
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dome; FB:FBgn0043903
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Ptp61F; FB:FBgn0267487
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR031901
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
trachea

Comment: tracheal expression is transient

Additional Descriptive Data

upd2 is expressed in segmentally repeated stripes at embryonic stage 9. At embryonic stage 10, upd2 has transient tracheal expression. At embryonic stage 11, the tracheal expression of upd2 has been replaced with expression in the hindgut and posterior spiracles.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\upd2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 3 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of upd2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of upd2
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CRZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor leading to receptor dimerization and the intracellular activation of a Janus kinase (JAK) family member. JAK phosphorylates cytoplasmic STAT family members which dimerize, translocate into the nucleus and regulate target gene expression. In Drosophila, the core pathway is limited to three ligands (the Unpaired family of cytokines), a single receptor (dome), JAK kinase (hop) and STAT (Stat92E). (Adapted from FBrf0225259).
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-60

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:18,240,654..18,243,284 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
17A3-17A3
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}ari-1EP317 and P{EP}EP1378
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (8)
Genomic Clones (16)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (4)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: CG5988 upd2

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments

      "upd" and "os" can be genetically separated. This raises the possibility that "os" function may reside with an "upd-like" gene ("upd2" or "upd3").

      Other Comments

      upd2 and upd3 exhibit an additive effect in inducing intestinal stem cell proliferation in response to gut infection.

      upd2 is a secreted factor produced by the fat body in response to dietary fat and sugars. upd2 activates JAK/STAT signaling in a population of GABAergic neurons, relieving their inhibitory effect on the insulin-producing cells and in turn resulting in the secretion of insulin-like peptides into the hemolymph to promote systemic growth and fat storage.

      Gene expression is increased in response to the presence of two copies of Scer\GAL4hs.PB.

      upd2 is not required for os-induced JAK/STAT signalling.

      S2-derived S2-NP cells transfected with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against upd2 exhibit a reduction in JAK/STAT activity, indicating upd2 is involved in the positive regulation of JAK/STAT signalling in these cells.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 25 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Upd2/Leptin
      unpaired 2
      upd2
      (Ahlers et al., 2019, Asri et al., 2019, Bailetti et al., 2019, Banerjee et al., 2019, Gultekin and Steller, 2019, Herrera and Bach, 2019, Hill et al., 2019, Houtz et al., 2019, Lin et al., 2019, Saavedra and Perrimon, 2019, Singh et al., 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Ahmed-de-Prado et al., 2018, Bazzi et al., 2018, Gáliková and Klepsatel, 2018, Jia et al., 2018, Prange et al., 2018, Romey-Glüsing et al., 2018, Tokusumi et al., 2018, Vicente et al., 2018, Banerjee et al., 2017, Beshel et al., 2017, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Lee et al., 2017, Mattila and Hietakangas, 2017, Takemura and Nakato, 2017, Terriente-Félix et al., 2017, Tian et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Atkins et al., 2016, Guo et al., 2016, Hoi et al., 2016, Shen et al., 2016, Shih et al., 2016, Tian et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Doggett et al., 2015, Gao et al., 2015, Katsuyama et al., 2015, Shapiro-Kulnane et al., 2015, Wagner et al., 2015, Woodcock et al., 2015, Yurgel et al., 2015, Zang et al., 2015, Zhai et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Kux and Pitsouli, 2014, Li et al., 2014, Djiane et al., 2013, Kannan and Fridell, 2013, Kemp et al., 2013, Zeidler and Bausek, 2013, Chakrabarti et al., 2012, Cordero et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kelsey et al., 2012, Osman et al., 2012, Osman et al., 2012, Rajan and Perrimon, 2012, Feng et al., 2011, Karpac et al., 2011, Sinenko et al., 2011, Wright et al., 2011, Beebe et al., 2010, Shaw et al., 2010, Sotillos et al., 2010, Wu et al., 2010, Classen et al., 2009, Liu and Lehmann, 2008, López-Onieva et al., 2008, Pastor-Pareja et al., 2008, Wang and Harrison, 2008, Krzemień et al., 2007, Wang and Harrison, 2007, Hombria et al., 2005, Wawersik et al., 2005)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (229)