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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ihog
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
interference hedgehog
Annotation Symbol
CG9211
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0031872
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
interference hedgehog (ihog) encodes a type 1 membrane protein that acts as a co-receptor for the product of hh upstream or at the level of the receptor encoded by ptc. It interacts with the products of disp, dlp, dally and shf. It is involved in imaginal pattern formation and embryonic cuticle pattern formation. [Date last reviewed: 2018-11-15] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

CT26314

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-23
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:6945464..6948808
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (23 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ptc; FB:FBgn0003892
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ptc; FB:FBgn0003892
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q02936
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:boi; FB:FBgn0040388
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:boi; FB:FBgn0040388
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ptc; FB:FBgn0003892
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dlp; FB:FBgn0041604
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:boi; FB:FBgn0040388
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in axon guidance
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN008129288
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in cell-cell adhesion
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002548291
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in neuron migration
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN008129288
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cell surface
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoneme
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in axonal growth cone
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN008129288
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in cell surface
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN008129288
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in plasma membrane
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN008129288
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. IHOG family. (Q9VM64)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
interference hedgehog (ihog) encodes a type 1 membrane protein that acts as a co-receptor for the product of hh upstream or at the level of the receptor encoded by ptc. It interacts with the products of disp, dlp, dally and shf. It is involved in imaginal pattern formation and embryonic cuticle pattern formation. [Date last reviewed: 2018-11-15]
Pathway (FlyBase)
Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The hedgehog signaling pathway is initiated by hedgehog (hh) ligand binding to the extracellular domain of patched receptor (ptc), leading to the derepression of smoothened (smo) activity. Activation of the atypical GPCR smo results in the accumulation of the transcriptional activator form of cubitus interruptus (ci) and the derepression/activation of hh target genes. In the absence of hh, smo is repressed by ptc and ci is processed to a truncated repressor form. (Adapted from FBrf0220683 and FBrf0231236).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Mediates response to the active Hedgehog (Hh) protein signal in embryos, functioning upstream or at the level of patched (ptc).
(UniProt, Q9VM64)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

IGcam membrane protein - binds Hedgehog and mediates Hedgehog response

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\ihog for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry Q9VM64)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079365
3276
886
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078993
97.8
886
9.07
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer. Heterotetramer; 2 iHog chains bind 2 hh chains when facilitated by heparin, heparin is required to promote high-affinity interactions between hh and iHog.

(UniProt, Q9VM64)
Domain

The first Fibronectin type-III domain mediates a specific interaction with Hh protein, in vitro. The second Fibronectin type-III domain is additionally required for in vivo signaling activity.

(UniProt, Q9VM64)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ihog using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

ihog protein expression is lower in the expression domains of hh and ptc in the wing disc.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cell surface
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoneme
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ihog in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ihog
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ihog
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 4 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 4 )
Gene partially disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
1  
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
4 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (10)
6 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer. Heterotetramer; 2 iHog chains bind 2 hh chains when facilitated by heparin, heparin is required to promote high-affinity interactions between hh and iHog.
(UniProt, Q9VM64 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The hedgehog signaling pathway is initiated by hedgehog (hh) ligand binding to the extracellular domain of patched receptor (ptc), leading to the derepression of smoothened (smo) activity. Activation of the atypical GPCR smo results in the accumulation of the transcriptional activator form of cubitus interruptus (ci) and the derepression/activation of hh target genes. In the absence of hh, smo is repressed by ptc and ci is processed to a truncated repressor form. (Adapted from FBrf0220683 and FBrf0231236).
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-23
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
27C6-27C6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}xl6k00230&P{EP}Hrb27CEP748 and P{PZ}smt304841&P{PZ}smt304493
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (5)
Genomic Clones (18)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (23)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: iHog CG9211

Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments

iHog and boi are in the same protein family and appear to overlap functionally.

Epistatic experiments show that iHog acts at or upstream of ptc and upstream of smo.

Epistasis experiments suggest that iHog acts upstream or at the level of ptc.

The iHog protein may be a cell surface receptor for the hh protein, possibly acting as a co-receptor with the ptc gene product.

Inactivation of iHog function leads to defects characteristic of loss of hh signaling in embryos and imaginal discs.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology

The gene is named "interference Hedgehog"due to the fact that dsRNA against this gene reduces the response to hh signalling.

Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (8)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (8)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from non-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from wasp-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 72 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from wasp-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    References (93)