General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Samuel
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
SAM-motif ubiquitously expressed punctatedly localized protein
Annotation Symbol
CG31868
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0032330
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
SAM-motif ubiquitously expressed punctatedly localized protein (Samuel) encodes a protein that binds to the nuclear receptor encoded by Hr78 and acts as a corepressor. It regulates chromatin silencing and larval growth. [Date last reviewed: 2018-11-15]
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:11,013,206..11,066,998 [-]
Recombination map
2-44
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Samuel or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Samuel for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0080161
4457
968
FBtr0331197
5056
968
FBtr0343624
3166
846
FBtr0347160
3765
846
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079750
96.7
968
9.70
FBpp0303624
96.7
968
9.70
FBpp0310219
85.6
846
10.05
FBpp0312491
85.6
846
10.05
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

968 aa isoforms: Samuel-PA, Samuel-PB
846 aa isoforms: Samuel-PD, Samuel-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Samuel using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (2 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Samuel in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 31 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Samuel
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of enhancer trap binary system
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 3 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Samuel
Allele of Samuel
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Samuel
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BW9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507HF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07TS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-44
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:11,013,206..11,066,998 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    32C1-32D1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k05812k05812&P{lacW}l(2)k09104k09104 and P{EP}ppoEP2478&P{lacW}l(2)k15817k15817
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (26)
    Genomic Clones (43)
    cDNA Clones (17)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            RNAi and Array Information
            Linkouts
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Antibody Information
            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
             
            Commercially Available Antibodies
             
            Other Information
            Relationship to Other Genes
            Source for database identify of
            Source for database merge of
            Source for merge of: Samuel CG14918 CG14917 CG12291
            Additional comments
            Annotations CG12291, CG14917, CG14918 merged as CG31868 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
            Other Comments
            Hr78 protein is an obligate partner for Samuel protein, a cofactor that requires Hr78 protein for its stability.
            RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
            Over-expression of Samuel protein causes severe defects in photoreceptor cell and wing bristle development. Loss of function mutant animals die during first instar larva.
            Origin and Etymology
            Discoverer
            Etymology
            Identification
            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
            Sequence Crossreferences
            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
            GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
            RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
            UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            Other crossreferences
            InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
            Linkouts
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
            FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
            FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
            FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
            Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
            MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
            Reported As
            Name Synonyms
            Middleman of seventy-eight signaling
            SAM-motif ubiquitously expressed punctatedly localized protein
            middleman of seventy-eight signaling
            Secondary FlyBase IDs
            • FBgn0032332
            • FBgn0032333
            • FBgn0051868
            Datasets (0)
            Study focus (0)
            Experimental Role
            Project
            Project Type
            Title
            References (36)