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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\AstC
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Allatostatin C
Annotation Symbol
CG14919
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0032336
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Allatostatin C (AstC) encodes a myotropic factor involved in heart rate decrease. [Date last reviewed: 2019-07-11]
Also Known As
Ast-C, drostatin-C, FLT, flatline, Ast2
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:11,076,165..11,081,399 [-]
Recombination map
2-44
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    NEUROPEPTIDES -
    Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    2

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\AstC or the JBrowse view of Dmel\AstC for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
    Gene model reviewed during 5.52
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0080234
    1202
    122
    FBtr0301761
    1199
    121
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0079821
    13.9
    122
    7.99
    FBpp0290975
    13.8
    121
    7.99
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\AstC using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (8 terms)
    Molecular Function (3 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P42559
    non-traceable author statement
    non-traceable author statement
    Biological Process (4 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Cellular Component (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    AstC transcript is observed in each larval brain lobe in two clusters of superior lateral protocerebral cells (3 and 7 cells), and three posterior medial protocerebral cells. AstC transcript is observed in a ventral lateral cell and ventral medial cell on each side of the larval subesophageal ganglion. In the larval ventral nerve cord, AstC transcript is observed in a pair of ventral lateral cells per thoracic hemisegment, a ventral medial cell in each mesothoracic hemisegment, a dorsal lateral cell in each abdominal hemisegment, and a dorsal medial and two ventral medial cells on each side of the posterior third of the abdominal ventral nerve cord. In each half of the adult brain, AstC transcript is observed in 7 superior medial protocerebral cells, 3 superior lateral protocerebral cells, 7 posterior medial protocerebral cells, a posterior lateral protocerebral cell, 3 ventral lateral subesophageal cells, 4 ventral medial subesophageal cells, 5 anterior dorsal optic lobe cells, and a posterior ventral optic lobe cell. AstC transcript is also expressed in many cells in the adult midgut, with the greatest density in the middle of the midgut.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    midgut

    Comment: strong in proximal part of posterior midgut

    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    AstC peptides were detected in extracts from adult and larval midguts.
    About 20 AstC immunoreactive cells are found just after the restriction separating the iron cells from the posterior midgut. A larger number are found in the first half of the posterior midgut. These do not overlap with the AstA expressing cells in the posterior region of the posterior midgut. A small number of staining cells are found in the copper cell region of the middle midgut.
    AstC immunoreactivity is observed in two medial cells in the superior protocerebrum that send processes laterally along the anterior of the superior protocerebrum to impinge on cells in the medial protocerebrum, and posteriorly through the subesophageal ganglion to the posterior end of ventral nerve cord. Immunoreactivity is also observed in 8 cell bodies of the lateral protocerebrum. Two to three faintly stained cells in the medial protocerebrum appear to be the cells impinged upon by the superior protocerebral cells; these cells extend axons posteriorly to the ventral nerve cord, and do not contact any other immunoreactive cells. There is one large intensely stained medial cell body in the subesophageal ganglion, and 4-5 smaller less intensely stained more lateral cell bodies in the ventral nerve cord. One immunoreactive cell per thoracic ganglion extend processes to the end of the ventral nerve cord. There are several small lateral cells in the abdominal ganglia.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\AstC in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
    • Stages(s) 13-16
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 2 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of AstC
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of AstC
    Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190IIS )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150FOT )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0JTT )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
       
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2L
      Recombination map
      2-44
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2L:11,076,165..11,081,399 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      32D2-32D2
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}ppoEP2478&P{lacW}l(2)k15817k15817 and P{lacW}RfC38k13807
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (6)
      Genomic Clones (21)
      cDNA Clones (20)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: Ast2 flt
      Source for identity of: Ast2 CG14919
      Source for identity of: AstC Ast-C
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Ast2 BcDNA:RH36507
      Additional comments
      Source for identity of Ast2 CG14919 was sequence comparison ( date:010503 ).
      Source for merge of Ast2 BcDNA:RH36507 was TrEMBL update ( date:020807 ).
      Other Comments
      Identification: as a peptide that stops spontaneous contractions of the heart and gut in a dose dependent manner.
      Identified with: GH06087 <up>FlyBase curator comment: EST subsequently found to be chimeric</up>.
      EST GH06087 is chimeric; the 5' portion (AI106848) corresponds to part of the predicted dicistronic transcript encoding both CG9515 and CG9510, while the 3' portion (BG632280) corresponds to part of Ast-C.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 33 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (27)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0043835
      • FBgn0047021
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (84)