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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\AstC
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Allatostatin C
Annotation Symbol
CG14919
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0032336
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Allatostatin C (AstC) encodes a myotropic factor involved in heart rate decrease. [Date last reviewed: 2019-07-11] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Ast-C, drostatin-C, Ast2, FLT, flatline

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-44
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:11076165..11081399
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (7 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P42559
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Snapshot
    Allatostatin C (AstC) encodes a myotropic factor involved in heart rate decrease. [Date last reviewed: 2019-07-11]
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    NEUROPEPTIDES -
    Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    2

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\AstC for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Structure New Section
    Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry Q9VKK5)

    If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
    Model Confidence:
    • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
    • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
    • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
    • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

    AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

    Comments on Gene Model

    Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

    Gene model reviewed during 5.52

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0080234
    1202
    122
    FBtr0301761
    1199
    121
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    UniProt
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0079821
    13.9
    122
    7.99
    FBpp0290975
    13.8
    121
    7.99
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\AstC using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that the Fly Cell Atlas project found the gene expressed in that cell type. Darker colors mean that more cells of that cell type express the gene:
     low
    high 
    Colorless tiles indicate that there is no scRNAseq data for the gene in that cell type.
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data (RNA and/or protein) has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    Colored tiles in the ribbon indicate the average RNA expression level of the gene at the indicated stages:
     low
    high 
    as determined by RNA-seq (RPKM) using whole organism samples modENCODE, Brown et al., 2014. For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    AstC transcript is expressed in 4 DN1p neurons, 3 LP neurons, and -20 DN3 neurons. These neurons coexpress tim.

    AstC transcript is observed in each larval brain lobe in two clusters of superior lateral protocerebral cells (3 and 7 cells), and three posterior medial protocerebral cells. AstC transcript is observed in a ventral lateral cell and ventral medial cell on each side of the larval subesophageal ganglion. In the larval ventral nerve cord, AstC transcript is observed in a pair of ventral lateral cells per thoracic hemisegment, a ventral medial cell in each mesothoracic hemisegment, a dorsal lateral cell in each abdominal hemisegment, and a dorsal medial and two ventral medial cells on each side of the posterior third of the abdominal ventral nerve cord. In each half of the adult brain, AstC transcript is observed in 7 superior medial protocerebral cells, 3 superior lateral protocerebral cells, 7 posterior medial protocerebral cells, a posterior lateral protocerebral cell, 3 ventral lateral subesophageal cells, 4 ventral medial subesophageal cells, 5 anterior dorsal optic lobe cells, and a posterior ventral optic lobe cell. AstC transcript is also expressed in many cells in the adult midgut, with the greatest density in the middle of the midgut.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    AstC protein is expressed in 4 DN1p neurons, 3 LP neurons, and ~20 DN3 neurons; these neurons coexpress tim. AstC protein cycles in DN1p neurons, and accumulate at higher levels during the dark phase.

    AstC peptides were detected in extracts from adult and larval midguts.

    About 20 AstC immunoreactive cells are found just after the restriction separating the iron cells from the posterior midgut. A larger number are found in the first half of the posterior midgut. These do not overlap with the AstA expressing cells in the posterior region of the posterior midgut. A small number of staining cells are found in the copper cell region of the middle midgut.

    AstC immunoreactivity is observed in two medial cells in the superior protocerebrum that send processes laterally along the anterior of the superior protocerebrum to impinge on cells in the medial protocerebrum, and posteriorly through the subesophageal ganglion to the posterior end of ventral nerve cord. Immunoreactivity is also observed in 8 cell bodies of the lateral protocerebrum. Two to three faintly stained cells in the medial protocerebrum appear to be the cells impinged upon by the superior protocerebral cells; these cells extend axons posteriorly to the ventral nerve cord, and do not contact any other immunoreactive cells. There is one large intensely stained medial cell body in the subesophageal ganglion, and 4-5 smaller less intensely stained more lateral cell bodies in the ventral nerve cord. One immunoreactive cell per thoracic ganglion extend processes to the end of the ventral nerve cord. There are several small lateral cells in the abdominal ganglia.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\AstC in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
    • Stages(s) 13-16
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of AstC
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of AstC
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
    Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
    Inferred from location ( 0 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2L
      Recombination map
      2-44
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      32D2-32D2
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}ppoEP2478&P{lacW}l(2)k15817k15817 and P{lacW}RfC38k13807
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (7)
      Genomic Clones (21)
      cDNA Clones (20)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: Ast2 flt

      Source for identity of: Ast2 CG14919

      Source for identity of: AstC Ast-C

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: Ast2 BcDNA:RH36507

      Additional comments

      Source for identity of Ast2 CG14919 was sequence comparison ( date:010503 ).

      Source for merge of Ast2 BcDNA:RH36507 was TrEMBL update ( date:020807 ).

      Other Comments

      Identification: as a peptide that stops spontaneous contractions of the heart and gut in a dose dependent manner.

      Identified with: GH06087 <up>FlyBase curator comment: EST subsequently found to be chimeric</up>.

      EST GH06087 is chimeric; the 5' portion (AI106848) corresponds to part of the predicted dicistronic transcript encoding both CG9515 and CG9510, while the 3' portion (BG632280) corresponds to part of Ast-C.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (27)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BEST:GH06087
      BcDNA:RH36507
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0043835
      • FBgn0047021
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      Study result (0)
      Result
      Result Type
      Title
      References (109)