-protein is expressed in larval and adult Kenyon cells as well as in larval and adult lateral neurosecretory cells. Expression in Hugin neurons and antennal olfactory receptor neurons is only detected in adults.In addition, sNPF
-protein is expressed in four cells of the hypocerebral ganglion express that project to the outermost layer of the proventriculus.
protein is expressed in a subset of neurons in the adult brain. Ten of these co-express mnb
protein is expressed in 4 layers of the fan-shaped body. Co-localisation with Scer\GAL4GMR64H09
is observed in these regions.
protein is detected in dorsal and ventral layers of the fan-shaped body, which the authors identify as layers 1-2 and 6-7, respectively. The strongest staining is observed in layer 2. Co-localisation with Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4
is observed in the dorsal layers of the fan-shaped body and in a cluster of 6-8 neurons in the dorsoposterior protocerebrum. These latter neurons also express Scer\GAL4VGlut.PD
protein is expressed in distinct glomeruli in the adult antennal lobe. A subset of these is glomeruli is also labelled by Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4
In the adult sNPF
protein is expressed in three neurons of the LNd cluster. Two of these LNd neurons also express Scer\GAL4Mai179
and do not correspond to the LNd neurons labeled by Scer\GAL4NPF.4.5
in males. In late third instar larva, sNPF
protein is expressed in two s-LNv Pdf neurons. These two s-LNv Pdf neurons are also labeled by Scer\GAL4NP6301
staining is seen in cell bodies in the hypocerebral ganglion with axons running over the proventriculus and the first part of the anterior midgut. Staining is also observed in the anterior midgut and in the posterior midgut immediately after the iron cells.
In adult mushroom bodies, sNPF
protein is strongly expressed at the end of the alpha lobe, and in the beta and gamma lobes, and heel. Expression is absent from the core stratum of the alpha and beta lobes, and in the alpha' and beta' lobes. In the larva, strong staining is detected in the dorsal tips of the vertical lobes and in the median portions of the medial lobe. Expression is absent from the core of the peduncle, vertical and medial lobes.
Antisera labelling closely approximates that of in situ labelling in both adults and larvae. sNPF
protein appears to be expressed in most of the approximately 600 larval Kenyon cells, and in 190-200 cells of the larval central nervous system, approximately 70 of which are in the brain (including the subesophageal ganglion) and a minimum of 120 in the thoracic and abdominal neuromeres. Three pairs of intensely immunolabelled cells (referred to as LNCs) located dorsally in the protocerebrum are probably neurosecretory cells of the pars lateralis and have axons terminating in the ring gland and anterior aorta. Processes of sNPF
immunopositive larval cells are seen in neuropils of the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, subesophageal ganglion, and most densely in the lobes of the mushroom body. Further processes are seen in the larval optic center, non-glomerular neuropils surrounding the mushroom body lobes, and the pars intercerebralis and lateralis. In the abdominal and thoracic neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord, sNPF
immunopositive cells are located dorsally, ventrally and laterally. In larval abdominal neuromeres A7 and A8 there are additional immunopositive cell bodies with large diameters, and a pair of large dorso-medially located cell bodies expressing sNPF-XP
are found in abdominal segment A1. Two bundles of sNPF
immunopositive fibres are found in the ventral ganglia associated with the dors-median and ventro-median tracts. Expression was also seen in two layers of the fan shaped body of the central complex, and in the basal portion of the medulla. Expression within the antennal lobe is located within the olfactory receptor neurons, as determined by coexpression of Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4
peptide is found in neurons in the dorsal anterior of the larval prototcerebrum, and in six projecting axons of the thoracic ventral ganglion, and in axons of the descending connectives in the abdominal ventral ganglion. In the adult, sNPF
peptide is found in the medulla of the optic lobe and in the calyx of the mushroom body.