General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sNPF
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
short neuropeptide F precursor
Annotation Symbol
CG13968
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0032840
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Short neuropeptide F precursor binds to sNPF-R and activates ERK-Dilps signaling or the PKA-CREB pathway. Its roles include the regulation of cell and organism growth, carbohydrate metabolism, lifespan, feeding behavior, locomotion, circadian rhythm, and sleep. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
Drm-sNPF-1, sNPF-3, 38B.2, Drm-sNPF-4, sNPF-4
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:20,027,915..20,056,373 [+]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the NPY family. (Q9VIQ0)
Protein Domains/Motifs
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
NEUROPEPTIDES -
Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Plays a role in controlling food intake and regulating body size.
(UniProt, Q9VIQ0)
Interactive Fly
neuropeptide that engenders ERK-mediated insulin expression and thus systemically modulates growth, metabolism and lifespan
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\sNPF or the JBrowse view of Dmel\sNPF for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081327
2447
281
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080859
32.5
281
8.19
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
Small sNPF-derived neuropeptides identified by 2D capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS: WFGDVNQKPI, SDPDMLNSIVE, SPSLRLRF-amide.
Antibody is to WFGDVNQKPIRSPSLRLRF peptide.
Small sNPF-derived neuropeptides identified by LC-MS/MS: WFGDVNQKPI, SDPDMLNSIVE, SDPDM(ox)LNSIVE.
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sNPF using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (19 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
In situ labelling closely approximates that of antisera labelling in both adults and larvae. At the larval stage approximately 35 neurons per hemisphere, other than the Kenyon cells, are positive for sNPF mRNA. These cells are located dorsally and ventrally and include three strongly labelled neurons with large cell bodies that are probably neurosecretory cells. In each of the thoracic and abdominal neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord, three to four lateral cell bodies and one dorso-medial cell body express sNPF transcript. In abdominal neuromeres A7 and A8 there are additional labelled cell bodies with large diameters, and a pair of large dorso-medially located cell bodies expressing sNPF transcript are found in abdominal segment A1. In adults, expression of sNPF transcript is seen in approximately 280 neuronal cell bodies other than the Kenyon cells. The approximately 28 neurons distributed in the adult subesophageal ganglion are located in three bilateral clusters: one cluster close to the esophageal foramen; another ventrolateral in the ganglion; and a third cluster dorsolateral in the ganglion. At the base of the adult optic lobe there are clusters of about 50 small cell bodies distributed anteriorly and posteriorly. Several clusters of sNPF-XR expressing cells are located in the adult dorsal protocerebrum, mostly in the posterior with only approximately four cells located anteriorly.
Late embryonic expression of sPNF transcript is observed in the antennomaxillary sense organ, in the posterior of the brain hemispheres, in the fused ventral ganglion, and in bilaterally symmetrical pairs of cells along the ventral midline of the ventral ganglion. In the third instar larval central nervous system, expression is observed in the dorsal anterior region of the protocerebrum of the brain hemispheres, in cells of the subesophageal ganglion, along the ventral midline, and in the thoracic and abdominal segments of the ventral ganglion.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
distribution deduced from reporter (Gal4 UAS)
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
sNPF-protein is expressed in larval and adult Kenyon cells as well as in larval and adult lateral neurosecretory cells. Expression in Hugin neurons and antennal olfactory receptor neurons is only detected in adults.In addition, sNPF-protein is expressed in four cells of the hypocerebral ganglion express that project to the outermost layer of the proventriculus.
sNPF protein is expressed in a subset of neurons in the adult brain. Ten of these co-express mnb protein.
sNPF protein is expressed in 4 layers of the fan-shaped body. Co-localisation with Scer\GAL4GMR64H09 is observed in these regions.
sNPF colocalizes with Scer\GAL4ATP7.PB expressing peptidergic neurons in the hypocerebral ganglion.
sNPF protein is detected in dorsal and ventral layers of the fan-shaped body, which the authors identify as layers 1-2 and 6-7, respectively. The strongest staining is observed in layer 2. Co-localisation with Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4 is observed in the dorsal layers of the fan-shaped body and in a cluster of 6-8 neurons in the dorsoposterior protocerebrum. These latter neurons also express Scer\GAL4VGlut.PD.
sNPF protein is expressed in distinct glomeruli in the adult antennal lobe. A subset of these is glomeruli is also labelled by Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4.
In the adult sNPF protein is expressed in three neurons of the LNd cluster. Two of these LNd neurons also express Scer\GAL4Mai179 and do not correspond to the LNd neurons labeled by Scer\GAL4NPF.4.5 in males. In late third instar larva, sNPF protein is expressed in two s-LNv Pdf neurons. These two s-LNv Pdf neurons are also labeled by Scer\GAL4NP6301.
Strong sNPF staining is seen in cell bodies in the hypocerebral ganglion with axons running over the proventriculus and the first part of the anterior midgut. Staining is also observed in the anterior midgut and in the posterior midgut immediately after the iron cells.
In adult mushroom bodies, sNPF protein is strongly expressed at the end of the alpha lobe, and in the beta and gamma lobes, and heel. Expression is absent from the core stratum of the alpha and beta lobes, and in the alpha' and beta' lobes. In the larva, strong staining is detected in the dorsal tips of the vertical lobes and in the median portions of the medial lobe. Expression is absent from the core of the peduncle, vertical and medial lobes.
Antisera labelling closely approximates that of in situ labelling in both adults and larvae. sNPF protein appears to be expressed in most of the approximately 600 larval Kenyon cells, and in 190-200 cells of the larval central nervous system, approximately 70 of which are in the brain (including the subesophageal ganglion) and a minimum of 120 in the thoracic and abdominal neuromeres. Three pairs of intensely immunolabelled cells (referred to as LNCs) located dorsally in the protocerebrum are probably neurosecretory cells of the pars lateralis and have axons terminating in the ring gland and anterior aorta. Processes of sNPF immunopositive larval cells are seen in neuropils of the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, subesophageal ganglion, and most densely in the lobes of the mushroom body. Further processes are seen in the larval optic center, non-glomerular neuropils surrounding the mushroom body lobes, and the pars intercerebralis and lateralis. In the abdominal and thoracic neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord, sNPF immunopositive cells are located dorsally, ventrally and laterally. In larval abdominal neuromeres A7 and A8 there are additional immunopositive cell bodies with large diameters, and a pair of large dorso-medially located cell bodies expressing sNPF-XP are found in abdominal segment A1. Two bundles of sNPF immunopositive fibres are found in the ventral ganglia associated with the dors-median and ventro-median tracts. Expression was also seen in two layers of the fan shaped body of the central complex, and in the basal portion of the medulla. Expression within the antennal lobe is located within the olfactory receptor neurons, as determined by coexpression of Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4.
sNPF peptide is found in neurons in the dorsal anterior of the larval prototcerebrum, and in six projecting axons of the thoracic ventral ganglion, and in axons of the descending connectives in the abdominal ventral ganglion. In the adult, sNPF peptide is found in the medulla of the optic lobe and in the calyx of the mushroom body.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}sNPFNP6301
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sNPF-GAL4.2.4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sNPF-GAL4.V}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sNPF in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D7Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B57 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0CUZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0CT2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-54
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:20,027,915..20,056,373 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    38B1-38B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k10239k10239 and P{lacW}barrk14014
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (38)
    cDNA Clones (62)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: LRLRFamide CG13968
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    sNPF encodes a putative precursor of four "short NPF"-like peptides.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 34 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Linkouts
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (42)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    sNPF
    (Ameku et al., 2018, Clemson et al., 2018, Croset et al., 2018, Jékely et al., 2018, Ly et al., 2018, Nässel, 2018, Top and Young, 2018, Ugrankar et al., 2018, Liang et al., 2017, Liu and Jin, 2017, Martelli et al., 2017, Schoofs et al., 2017, Brookheart and Duncan, 2016, Crocker et al., 2016, Fear et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2016, Schiesari et al., 2016, Shen et al., 2016, Slade and Staveley, 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Beckwith and Ceriani, 2015, Dissel et al., 2015, Nässel et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Owusu-Ansah and Perrimon, 2014, Ruiz et al., 2014, Vecsey et al., 2014, Asahina and Anderson, 2013.9.23, Carlsson et al., 2013, Erion and Sehgal, 2013, Farhan et al., 2013, Hur et al., 2013, Itskov and Ribeiro, 2013, Kannan and Fridell, 2013, Lemaitre and Miguel-Aliaga, 2013, Marianes and Spradling, 2013, Nässel et al., 2013, Sengupta, 2013, Shang et al., 2013, Sim and Denlinger, 2013, Zhu, 2013, Bendena et al., 2012, Chintapalli et al., 2012, Hong et al., 2012, Kahsai et al., 2012, Langley et al., 2012, Ruben et al., 2012, Damulewicz and Pyza, 2011, Ida et al., 2011, Kahsai and Winther, 2011, Reiher et al., 2011, Wegener et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Carlsson et al., 2010, Kahsai et al., 2010, Kahsai et al., 2010, Kula-Eversole et al., 2010, Johard et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Yew et al., 2009, Yew et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2008, Nässel et al., 2008, Veenstra et al., 2008, Wegener and Gorbashov, 2008, Yu et al., 2008, Wegener et al., 2006, Predel et al., 2004)
    sNPF1<up>4-11
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (143)