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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Hen1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Hen1 methyltransferase
Annotation Symbol
CG12367
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0033686
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Small RNA 2'-O-methyltransferase (2.1.1.n8)
Gene Summary
Hen1 methyltransferase (Hen1) encodes a methyltransferase that methylates the terminal 2' hydroxyl group of small interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. It probably protects the 3' ends of small RNAs from degradation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Pimet, DmHen1, piRNA methyltransferase

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-66
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:12145710..12152752
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000483941
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000483941
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in RNA methylation
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000483941
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000483941
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000483941
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000483941
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the methyltransferase superfamily. HEN1 family. (Q7K175)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + small RNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + small RNA containing a 3'-terminal 2'-O-methylnucleotide (2.1.1.n8)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Hen1 methyltransferase (Hen1) encodes a methyltransferase that methylates the terminal 2' hydroxyl group of small interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. It probably protects the 3' ends of small RNAs from degradation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER RNA METHYLTRANSFERASES -
The Other RNA methyltransferases is a collection of transferases that do not fit into any of the other major RNA methyltransferases.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Methyltransferase that adds a 2'-O-methyl group at the 3'-end of selected small RNAs. Mediates 2'-O-methylation of piRNAs, single-stranded siRNAs and long hairpin RNA genes (hpRNAs). Methylation protects the 3'-end of small RNAs from tailing and trimming and could constitute a recognition signal for appropriate argonaute machineries.
(UniProt, Q7K175)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

RNA methyltransferase - carries out methylation of small interfering RNAs, the final step in assembly of RISC occurring after the Argonaute-bound siRNA duplex is converted to single-stranded RNA

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Hen1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry Q7K175)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087984
1573
391
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
UniProt
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087092
45.6
391
4.44
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Hen1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that the Fly Cell Atlas project found the gene expressed in that cell type. Darker colors mean that more cells of that cell type express the gene:
 low
high 
Colorless tiles indicate that there is no scRNAseq data for the gene in that cell type.
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data (RNA and/or protein) has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
Colored tiles in the ribbon indicate the average RNA expression level of the gene at the indicated stages:
 low
high 
as determined by RNA-seq (RPKM) using whole organism samples modENCODE, Brown et al., 2014. For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Hen1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Hen1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Hen1
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 0 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-66
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    48E2-48E3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}jebk05644 and P{PZ}SmD302833
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (13)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (21)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: hen1 CG12367

    Source for identity of: Pimet hen1

    Source for identity of: Hen1 Pimet

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    FlyBase Curator comment: Renamed from 'Pimet/piRNA methyltransferase' to 'Hen1' because: i) the former is misleading because the gene product methylates both siRNAs and piRNAs in flies (see FBrf0202202); and ii) PubMed searches show that the wider research community clearly favours 'Hen1' over 'Pimet'.

    Other Comments

    Production of mature siRNAs from endogenous long hairpin RNA genes is a hybrid mechanism that combines canonical RNA interference factors (Dcr-2, Hen1 and AGO2) and a canonical microRNA factor loqs.

    hen1 methylates the 3' termini of siRNAs and piRNAs. hen1 acts on single strands and not duplexes.

    hen1 is required for piRNA-directed silencing of transposable elements in the germline.

    Pimet shows single-stranded small RNA methylation activity in vitro.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (0)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    References (72)