Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Dg
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Dystroglycan
Annotation Symbol
CG18250
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0034072
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Dystroglycan (Dg) encodes a major non-integrin extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor that connects the ECM to the actin cytoskeleton. It regulates animal survival and temperature preference, muscle integrity, myotendinous and neuromuscular junction formation and function, nervous system development, axon pathfinding, rhabdomere differentiation, neuronal stem cell division and epithelial polarity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

atu, DmDG, atsugari

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:16,081,176..16,098,564 [-]
Recombination map

2-77

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:16081176..16098564
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (32 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q0KI50
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q7YU29
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VDW3
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VDW6
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Dys; FB:FBgn0260003
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR015919
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002727160
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:2666
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (18 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dock; FB:FBgn0010583
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002727160
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002727160
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002727160
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002727160
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002727160
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:2666
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002727160
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DYSTROPHIN GLYCOPROTEIN COMPLEX -
The Dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is a plasma membrane transmembrane complex that links the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. The DGC is important for maintaining the integrity of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. It also functions as a scaffold for proteins involved in signaling and accumulates at the neuromuscular junction and at a variety of synapses in the peripheral and central nervous system. (Adapted from FBrf0212855 and FBrf0129834).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Dg for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087256
5247
997
FBtr0087257
4998
914
FBtr0087258
5793
1179
FBtr0306238
6533
1262
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086394
110.8
997
6.05
FBpp0086395
102.6
914
6.32
FBpp0086396
129.6
1179
4.93
FBpp0297348
137.7
1262
4.86
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dg using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data

Isoform-specific expression of Dg is observed in embryos. Dg-RC expression is observed in early embryos, in the epidermis, and weakly in the ventral nerve cord. Dg-RA expression is observed in a subset of tendon cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Dg is present at the membranes of all visceral myotubes, but concentrates at the edges of the visceral bands that completely extend over the midgut endoderm.

Dg protein is also expressed in three symmetric clusters on the lateral sides of the neuropil in thoracic segements of the larval ventral nerve cord.

An antibody specific to the Dg-PC isoform shows Dg protein present in cells posterior to the morphogenetic furrow. Staining is present before cells are positive for the neuronal marker 24B10 indicating that Dg expression precedes commitment to a neuronal fate. In additon to localization on photoreceptor cells, Dg expression is observed at the basal surface of the eye disc in the anterior region prior to and at the morphogenetic furrow. In early pupae (40% pupal development) Dg staining is found at the apical suface of neurons with less intense staining at the lateral surfaces of photoreceptor cells. Antibodies that recognize all Dg isoforms give similar results.

A longer isoform of the Dg protein (Dg-PC) is expressed between 2.5 and 20 hours of embryogenesis. A shorter form of the protein (predominantly Dg-PB) is produced after 6 hours of embryogenesis and is the predominant form in later stages. An antibody directed against the longer alternative exon detects Dg protein (reported to be Dg-PC) throughout embryogenesis. Expression is observed at the syncytial blastoderm stage in the plasma membrane. During cellularization, expression splits into two domains and is observed at the future apical cell membrane and basally in the furrow canal. During gastrulation, Dg-PC protein is concentrated at the apical side of cells that form the cephalic furrow, the amnioproctodeal invagination, and the ventral furrow. Weaker staining is observed at the basal side of the blastoderm embryo. At stages 9-10, protein is highly concentrated at the interface between ectoderm and mesoderm. After segregation of neuroblasts, expression is detected between the neuroblasts and the visceral mesoderm as well as weaker expression in the anterior and posterior midguts, the mesoderm, and the pole cells. Epidermal expression persists throughout embryogenesis. Dg-PC protein is also expressed in gonads, on axons of the CNS, and in a punctate pattern between the neuronal cell bodies of the ventral nerve cord that may represent cortex glia. Expression is also observed in the hindgut, in the gastric cecae, at the interface between visceral mesoderm and anterior midgut rudiment, in the PNS, in midgut constrictions, and in an unidentified group of segmentally repeating cells in the developing epidermis, close to the amnioserosa. Staining with antibodies directed agains Dg exon 8, the cytoplasmic domain, or the C-terminus give different staining results. Anti-exon-8 detects expression from around embryonic stage 5 while the C-term antibody detects expression from stage 14. The anti-cyto and C-term antibodies detect expression in the dorsal median cells. The anti C-term antibody was used to describe the expression of the shorter isofrom, Dg-PB. Expression of Dg-PB is first observed at embryonic stage 14 in the dorsal median cells. At stage 16, expression is observed in the pharynx, gastric cecae, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, and midgut constrictions. At stage 17, expression is found in the dorsal vessel, the cap cells of the chordotonal organs, and the gonads. Expression is observed in perineural cells that ensheath the peripheral nerves and the ventral nerve cord. The main Dg protein isoforms detected, Dg-PB and Dg-PC exhibit developmentally regulated and tissue-specific expression patterns. Both forms are expressed in some tissues including hindgut, midgut constrictions, gastric cecae, and gonads. Other tissues express one of the other (Dg-PC in blastoderm, visceral mesoderm, epidermis, tracheal pits and Dg-PB in dorsal vessel, chordotonal organs, dorsal median cells, and perineurial cells). In the nervous system, one isoform is found predominantly on axons while the other is on cells ensheathing the nervous system.

Dg protein is expressed in the adult eye, brain, and the developing larval brain and visual system, especially in optic lobes and photoreceptors. In the larval optic lobe, Dg protein is present both on photoreceptor axons in the optic stalk, lamina plexus and medulla neuropil, and in the repo‐expressing brain glial cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Dg in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 30 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Dg
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Dg
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901NB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503SS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03KT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03HM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05R9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map

2-77

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:16,081,176..16,098,564 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
52E2-52E4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)0507005070&P{EP}CG8414EP525 and P{EP}spinEP645&P{lacW}spink09905
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
52D2-52D15
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (14)
Genomic Clones (27)
cDNA Clones (99)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Dg CG18250

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    Source for identity of Dg CG18250 was sequence comparison ( date:001003 ).

    Other Comments

    Dg does not have an essential role in apical-basal follicle cell polarity.

    Dg is not required for the apical-basal polarity of follicle cells under normal food conditions. It is required for the correct planar polarity of the basal actin stress fibres of the follicle cells under these conditions.

    Dg is required cell autonomously for cellular polarity in the epithelial cells (apicobasal polarity) and the oocyte (anteroposterior polarity). Dg is also required non-cell-autonomously to organise the planar polarity of basal actin in follicle cells.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 79 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (147)