General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Lhr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Lethal hybrid rescue
Annotation Symbol
CG18468
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0034217
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Lethal hybrid rescue is required to repress transposable element and satellite DNA expression. It also has a gain-of-function phenotype of causing lethality in F1 male hybrids between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
HP3, mel-Lhr
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:17,431,032..17,432,219 [+]
Recombination map
2-82
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Protein Domains/Motifs
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
MADF-BESS DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION REGULATORS -
The MADF-BESS domain transcription regulators include a variety of activators and corepressors and chromatin modifying proteins. BESS domains are often present in combination with MADF domains. The BESS domain mediates protein-protein interactions. (Adapted from FBrf0155780 and FBrf0224045).
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Lhr: Lethal hybrid rescue
When Drosophila simulans carries Lhr, classes of hybrids between D. simulans and D. melanogaster that do not ordinarily survive are recovered. Crosses of D. melanogaster females by D. simulans males, which ordinarily produce only daughters, produce sons and daughters in a 1:1 ratio. Crosses of D. simulans females to D. melanogaster males, which ordinarily produce only sons, produce 86% sons and 14% daughters. Crosses of C(1)RM - bearing D. melanogaster females to D. simulans males, which normally produce only sons, yield a few daughters when the D. simulans males carry Lhr.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Lhr or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Lhr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086917
1188
334
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086073
38.6
334
9.90
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Lhr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (11 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004210
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Lhr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 1 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Lhr
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DN4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507G4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-82
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:17,431,032..17,432,219 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    54B7-54B7
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}l(2)k01209EP2177&P{lacW}k11012a and P{lacW}l(2)k07433k07433
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (5)
    Genomic Clones (14)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (4)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for identity of: Lhr CG18468
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a heterochromatic complex with Su(var)205 in D. melanogaster. Hmr and Lhr are required to repress transcripts from satellite DNAs and many families of transposable elements. They are also required to help regulate the length of telomeres (which in Drosophila are composed of domesticated transposable elements).
        The Dsim\Lhr ortholog of Lhr does not appear to affect satellite DNA transcription in D. simulans, but it does have a role in repressing transcription of transposable elements in this species.
        Upregulation of transposable element transcription is seen in hybrids between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, but this is unlikely to be the direct cause of hybrid lethality.
        The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a centromeric complex in D. melanogaster which is required for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Both an increase and a decrease in complex levels result in mitotic defects, indicating that this function is extremely dose sensitive. Alteration of the levels of the complex also result in an increase in transcription from transposable elements.
        The orthologous D. simulans Dsim\Hmr and Dsim\Lhr proteins also bind each other in coimmunoprecipitation experiments and also localise to the centromere (although Dsim\Hmr also shows a prominent non-centromeric localisation).
        The level of Hmr expression in D melanogaster is substantially higher than the expression of the orthologous Dsim\Hmr gene in D. simulans. Conversely, the expression of the D. simulans Dsim\Lhr gene is higher than the expression of the orthologous Lhr gene in D. melanogaster. Hybrids derived from a cross between D. melanogaster females and D. simulans males thus have an elevated amount of the Hmr-Lhr protein complex compared to the parent species, and the complex is delocalised, being bound to numerous interbands along all chromosome arms in the hybrids. Hybrid males and females show a massive increase in transcription from transposable elements, but as the effect is not sex-specific, this is presumably not the the main cause of the lethality of hybrid males.
        DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for Lhr protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 25 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
        Datasets (1)
        Study focus (1)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        • transgene_used
        Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
        References (49)