Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Lhr using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\Lhr in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: Lhr CG18468
The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a heterochromatic complex with Su(var)205 in D. melanogaster. Hmr and Lhr are required to repress transcripts from satellite DNAs and many families of transposable elements. They are also required to help regulate the length of telomeres (which in Drosophila are composed of domesticated transposable elements).
Upregulation of transposable element transcription is seen in hybrids between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, but this is unlikely to be the direct cause of hybrid lethality.
The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a centromeric complex in D. melanogaster which is required for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Both an increase and a decrease in complex levels result in mitotic defects, indicating that this function is extremely dose sensitive. Alteration of the levels of the complex also result in an increase in transcription from transposable elements.
The orthologous D. simulans Dsim\Hmr and Dsim\Lhr proteins also bind each other in coimmunoprecipitation experiments and also localise to the centromere (although Dsim\Hmr also shows a prominent non-centromeric localisation).
The level of Hmr expression in D melanogaster is substantially higher than the expression of the orthologous Dsim\Hmr gene in D. simulans. Conversely, the expression of the D. simulans Dsim\Lhr gene is higher than the expression of the orthologous Lhr gene in D. melanogaster. Hybrids derived from a cross between D. melanogaster females and D. simulans males thus have an elevated amount of the Hmr-Lhr protein complex compared to the parent species, and the complex is delocalised, being bound to numerous interbands along all chromosome arms in the hybrids. Hybrid males and females show a massive increase in transcription from transposable elements, but as the effect is not sex-specific, this is presumably not the the main cause of the lethality of hybrid males.