Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PGRP-SD
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Peptidoglycan recognition protein SD
Annotation Symbol
CG7496
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0035806
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Peptidoglycan recognition protein SD (PGRP-SD) encodes a secreted member of the peptidoglycan recognition protein of from Gram negative bacteria. It is a positive regulator of the Imd pathway by promoting the recognition of peptidoglycan. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SD precursor

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:7,651,180..7,651,900 [+]
Recombination map

3-21

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:7651180..7651900
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (11 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:PGRP-SC1b; FB:FBgn0033327
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR006619
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR017331
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase 2 family. (Q9VS97)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SHORT PEPTIDOGLYCAN RECOGNITION PROTEINS -
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune response that bind peptidoglycans. Insect PGRPs can be divided into two groups based on transcript size: short PGRPs (PGRP-S) and long PGRPs (PGRP-L). PGRP-S have signal peptides and can be extracellular proteins. (Adapted from FBrf0223078).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the increased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Peptidoglycan-recognition protein that plays a key role in innate immunity by binding to peptidoglycans (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria and activating the Toll pathway. Has no activity against on Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Shows some partial redundancy with PRPGP-SA in Gram-positive bacteria recognition. May act by activating the proteolytic cleavage of Spatzle and the subsequent activation of Toll pathway. Recognizes S.aureus PGN.
(UniProt, Q9VS97)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-SD for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076807
721
186
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076519
20.1
186
5.63
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PGRP-SD using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PGRP-SD in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 3 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of PGRP-SD
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of PGRP-SD
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
1  
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
7 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
No
No
6 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
6 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190J5E )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150G1T )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0997 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0O6Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (13)
6 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
    Positive regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the increased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-21

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:7,651,180..7,651,900 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    66A8-66A8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0721708223&P{EP}Rac2EP3118 and P{lacW}Nmtj1C7
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (5)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (5)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      polyclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: PGRP-SD CG7496

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 49 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      PGRP-SD
      (Garrido-Maraver et al., 2020, Lu et al., 2020, Nie et al., 2018, Troha et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Zhai et al., 2018, Kaynar et al., 2016, Castillo et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Guo et al., 2014, Hauling et al., 2014, Keebaugh and Schlenke, 2014, Kurata, 2014, Lindsay and Wasserman, 2014, Myllymäki et al., 2014, Panayidou et al., 2014, Salazar-Jaramillo et al., 2014, Ferrandon, 2013, Gendrin et al., 2013, Kingsolver et al., 2013, Marianes and Spradling, 2013, Mbodj et al., 2013, Merkling and van Rij, 2013, Short and Lazzaro, 2013, Stefanatos et al., 2013, Telonis-Scott et al., 2013, Doroszuk et al., 2012, Igboin et al., 2012, Kounatidis and Ligoxygakis, 2012, Petersen et al., 2012, Rynes et al., 2012, Atilano et al., 2011, Basbous et al., 2011, Chtarbanova and Imler, 2011, Douglas et al., 2011, Napoletano et al., 2011, Nehme et al., 2011, Valanne et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Wong et al., 2011, Yano and Kurata, 2011, Ye and McGraw, 2011, Fernández-Ayala et al., 2010, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2010, Kurata, 2010, Sackton et al., 2010, Buchon et al., 2009, Ye et al., 2009, Zsindely et al., 2009, Carrera et al., 2008, Davis et al., 2008, Gilchrist et al., 2008, Leone et al., 2008, Tsai et al., 2008, Wagner et al., 2008, Wang and Ligoxygakis, 2008, Curtis et al., 2007, Pal et al., 2007, Bischoff et al., 2006, Johansson et al., 2005, Shin et al., 2005, Bischoff et al., 2004, Roxstrom-Lindquist et al., 2004, Jiggins and Hurst, 2003, Mellroth et al., 2003, Christophides et al., 2002)
      Name Synonyms
      Peptidoglycan recognition protein SD
      Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SD precursor
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (107)