General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PGRP-LC
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LC
Annotation Symbol
CG4432
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0035976
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (3.5.1.28)
Gene Snapshot
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LC is a transmembrane receptor involved in the recognition of DAP-type peptidoglycan, a cell wall component found on Gram-negative bacteria and certain Gram positive bacteria. It functions upstream of the Immune Deficiency pathway. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
PGRP-LCx, PGRP-LCa, ird7
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:9,338,810..9,348,336 [+]
Recombination map
3-29
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase 2 family. (Q9GNK5)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Hydrolyzes the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell-wall glycopeptides (3.5.1.28)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
LONG PEPTIDOGLYCAN RECOGNITION PROTEINS -
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune response that bind peptidoglycans. Insect PGRPs can be divided into two groups based on transcript size: short PGRPs (PGRP-S) and long PGRPs (PGRP-L). PGRP-L can be intracellular, extracellular, and transmembrane proteins. (Adapted from FBrf0223078).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Major activator of the imd/Relish pathway and is likely to encode a pattern recognition molecule for the humoral immune response (PubMed:11872802, PubMed:22022271). Required for Relish processing and nuclear translocation following proteolytic cleavage (PubMed:11872802). Involved in the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11872802). The different isoforms probably display different recognition capabilities to various microbial patterns (PubMed:12777387, PubMed:16006509). Isoform a: Mediates the response to LPS and Gram-negative bacteria. Isoform x: Mediates the response to LPS, peptidoglycan and Gram-negative bacteria.
(UniProt, Q9GNK5)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
8

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-LC or the JBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-LC for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Gene model reviewed during 6.14
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089490
1876
500
FBtr0089491
2039
520
FBtr0089492
2579
511
FBtr0300290
1781
500
FBtr0300291
1172
329
FBtr0301773
1928
345
FBtr0308349
1935
520
FBtr0346814
1982
501
FBtr0472540
1192
340
FBtr0472541
1278
330
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088491
54.1
500
6.45
FBpp0088492
56.0
520
5.69
FBpp0088998
55.6
511
6.59
FBpp0289518
54.1
500
6.45
FBpp0289519
37.4
329
8.42
FBpp0290987
36.7
345
5.40
FBpp0300668
56.0
520
5.69
FBpp0312389
53.8
501
6.12
FBpp0422538
38.9
340
8.66
FBpp0422539
37.1
330
8.54
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

500 aa isoforms: PGRP-LC-PA, PGRP-LC-PD
520 aa isoforms: PGRP-LC-PB, PGRP-LC-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PGRP-LC using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (33 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:pirk; FB:FBgn0034647
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664864
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664863
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:O76537
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:PGRP-SC1b; FB:FBgn0033327
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664864
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001965, InterPro:IPR006619
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001336553
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001336553
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:O76537
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664863
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PGRP-LC in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 22 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of PGRP-LC
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
miscellaneous insertions
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 42 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of PGRP-LC
Allele of PGRP-LC
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of PGRP-LC
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
No
 
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
3 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907AN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505Z8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06GZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0997 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0O6Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-29
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:9,338,810..9,348,336 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    67B1-67B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0162901629&P{PZ}mRpL1210534 and P{EP}Hsp26EP3336&P{EP}Hsp26EP3315
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Maps near to h.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (52)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: PGRP-LC CG4432
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: PGRP-LC ird7
    Additional comments
    Source for identity of PGRP-LC CG4432 was sequence comparison ( date:001020 ).
    Other Comments
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a specific decrease in AttA activity in response to heat-killed E.coli when assayed in S2 cells.
    PGRP-LC binds strongly to all types of polymeric peptidoglycan and to monomeric TCT.
    Identification: as a mutation that fails to induce expression of Ecol\lacZDpt.PR normally in response to infection. 2 alleles have been obtained.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 99 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    PGRP-LC
    (Aranha and Vasconcelos, 2018, Garschall and Flatt, 2018, Goto et al., 2018, Min and Tatar, 2018, Palmer et al., 2018, Shibata and Kawabata, 2018, Su et al., 2018, Troha et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Zhai et al., 2018, Bastos et al., 2017, Christesen et al., 2017, Gupta et al., 2017, Keita et al., 2017, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Kleino et al., 2017, Kurz et al., 2017, Mussabekova et al., 2017, Paik et al., 2017, Yanagawa et al., 2017, Yao et al., 2017, Akbar et al., 2016, Bonfini et al., 2016, Broderick, 2016, Capo et al., 2016, Costechareyre et al., 2016, Faye and Lindberg, 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Mistry et al., 2016, Morris et al., 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Neyen et al., 2016, Shiratsuchi et al., 2016, Buchon and Osman, 2015, El Chamy et al., 2015, Harris et al., 2015, Kanoh et al., 2015, Kavi et al., 2015, Kong et al., 2015, Perrin et al., 2015, Sansone et al., 2015, Stratoulias and Heino, 2015, Verma and Tapadia, 2015, Vlisidou and Wood, 2015, Abnave et al., 2014, Arefin et al., 2014, Chakrabarti et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2014, Donlea et al., 2014, Goto et al., 2014, Horiguchi et al., 2014, Imler, 2014, Keebaugh and Schlenke, 2014, Lee and Lee, 2014, Mulakkal et al., 2014, Myllymäki et al., 2014, Péan and Dionne, 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Valanne, 2014, Xu and Cherry, 2014, Aparicio et al., 2013, Buchon et al., 2013, Daneshvar et al., 2013, Fukuyama et al., 2013, Gendrin et al., 2013, Kingsolver et al., 2013, Kuraishi et al., 2013, Lee and Brey, 2013, Marianes and Spradling, 2013, Merkling and van Rij, 2013, Nelson et al., 2013, Short and Lazzaro, 2013, Stefanatos et al., 2013, Telonis-Scott et al., 2013, Bosco-Drayon et al., 2012, Eleftherianos and Castillo, 2012, Hamilos et al., 2012, Igboin et al., 2012, Kounatidis and Ligoxygakis, 2012, Nam et al., 2012, Neyen et al., 2012, Paik et al., 2012, Tsuzuki et al., 2012, Vandenabeele and Bertrand, 2012, Vanha-Aho et al., 2012, Akhouayri et al., 2011, Basbous et al., 2011, Douglas et al., 2011, Fauvarque and Williams, 2011, Schmidt et al., 2011, Zhao et al., 2011, Aymeric et al., 2010, Goto et al., 2010, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2010, Paquette et al., 2010, Sackton et al., 2010, Valanne et al., 2010, Bond and Foley, 2009, Buchon et al., 2009, Buchon et al., 2009, Costa et al., 2009, Ertürk-Hasdemir et al., 2009, Gendrin et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Thevenon et al., 2009, Aggarwal et al., 2008, Bergeret et al., 2008, Davis et al., 2008, Goto et al., 2008, Kleino et al., 2008, Lee and Edery, 2008, Leone et al., 2008, Maillet et al., 2008, Schmidt et al., 2008, Tang et al., 2008, Tsai et al., 2008, Vonkavaara et al., 2008, Wagner et al., 2008, Yano et al., 2008, Bidla et al., 2007, El Chamy et al., 2007, Ferrandon, 2007.11.30, Kuranaga and Miura, 2007, Pal et al., 2007, Sackton et al., 2007, Tanji et al., 2007, Tsichritzis et al., 2007, Wagner and Roeder, 2007, Bischoff et al., 2006, Gottar et al., 2006, Kaneko et al., 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Libert et al., 2006, Zaidman-Remy et al., 2006, Erturk-Hasdemir and Silverman, 2005, Filipe et al., 2005, Gesellchen et al., 2005, Kocks et al., 2005, McGettigan et al., 2005, Bischoff et al., 2004, Kaneko et al., 2004, Gobert et al., 2003, Leulier et al., 2003, Mellroth et al., 2003, Werner et al., 2003)
    Name Synonyms
    PG recognition receptor-LC
    Peptidoglycan recognition protein LC
    Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LC
    immune response deficient 7
    peptidoglycan recognition protein LC
    peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0046840
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (266)