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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PGRP-LF
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LF
Annotation Symbol
CG4437
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0035977
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (3.5.1.28)
Gene Snapshot
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LF (PGRP-LF) encodes a transmembrane receptor that prevents the spontaneous activation of the immune deficiency pathway receptor encoded by PGRP-LC. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:9,349,609..9,351,489 [+]
Recombination map

3-29

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:9349609..9351489
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase 2 family. (Q8SXQ7)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Hydrolyzes the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell-wall glycopeptides (3.5.1.28)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
LONG PEPTIDOGLYCAN RECOGNITION PROTEINS -
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune response that bind peptidoglycans. Insect PGRPs can be divided into two groups based on transcript size: short PGRPs (PGRP-S) and long PGRPs (PGRP-L). PGRP-L can be intracellular, extracellular, and transmembrane proteins. (Adapted from FBrf0223078).
N-ACETYLMURAMOYL-L-ALANINE AMIDASES -
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases catalyze the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain bacterial cell-wall glycopeptides.
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Peptidoglycan-recognition protein probably involved in innate immunity by binding to peptidoglycans (PGN) of bacteria and activating the immune response.
(UniProt, Q8SXQ7)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-LF or the JBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-LF for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.39

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076439
1355
369
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076167
42.0
369
7.92
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PGRP-LF using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR006619
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

PGRP-LF protein is present at the cell membrane of fat body cells, where it appears in a punctate distribution along cell-cell interfaces. PGRP-LF protein is also observed at the cell surface in the proventriculus, in Malpighian tubules, and in trachea, where it colocalizes with spectrin.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PGRP-LF in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of PGRP-LF
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of PGRP-LF
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D7B )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06GZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0997 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0O6Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (13)
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-29

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:9,349,609..9,351,489 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    67B1-67B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0162901629&P{PZ}mRpL1210534 and P{EP}Hsp26EP3336&P{EP}Hsp26EP3315
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (4)
    Genomic Clones (14)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (98)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: PGRP-LF CG4437

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: PGRP-LF anon-WO0118547.581

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of PGRP-LF anon-WO0118547.581 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments

    Candidate for role in the regulation of longevity - as indicated by expression pattern of associated P{GawB}DJ646.

    FlyBase curator comment: the symbol "PGRP-LCa" used for the CG4437 annotation in this paper is incorrect - "PGRP-LCa" is an isoform encoded by the neighbouring PGRP-LC gene, and CG4437 corresponds to PGRP-LF.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 34 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    Peptidoglycan recognition protein LF
    Peptidoglycan recognition protein-LF
    Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LF
    peptidoglycan recognition protein
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0061861
    • FBgn0063601
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (85)