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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Ilp2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Insulin-like peptide 2
Annotation Symbol
CG8167
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0036046
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

dilp2, dilp-2, DILP, Dilp 2, insulin-like peptide

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:9,799,698..9,800,440 [+]
Recombination map

3-31

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:9799698..9800440
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the insulin family. (Q9VT51)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NEUROPEPTIDES -
Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
INSULIN-LIKE PEPTIDES -
The insulin superfamily consists of peptides such as vertebrate insulins, mammalian relaxin and insulin-like growth factors, and invertebrate insulin-like peptides (ILP). They are synthesized as pre-propeptides and processed to yield two peptides, A and B, linked by disulfide bonds. ILPs have been identified throughout invertebrate species. In D.mel, ILPs may function as peptide hormones and/or neuropeptides. They have been linked to the regulation of growth and development. (Adapted from FBrf0189697 and FBrf0152330).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Insulin-like Receptor (IR) signaling pathway in Drosophila is initiated by the binding of an insulin-like peptides to the Insulin-like receptor (InR). (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Plays a role in regulating body size by increasing cell size and cell number of individual organs. Probably mediates its growth effects by acting as a ligand for the insulin receptor and transducing a signal via the Chico/PI3K/Akt(PKB) pathway.
(UniProt, Q9VT51)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Insulin-like growth factor that functions as a growth stimulator - regulates of trehalose metabolism

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Ilp2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Ilp2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.43

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076329
670
137
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076058
15.3
137
7.05
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.

(UniProt, Q9VT51)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Ilp2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P09208
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:InR; FB:FBgn0283499
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q09024
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016179
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (26 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (26 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:GlyP; FB:FBgn0004507
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:InR; FB:FBgn0283499
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Expression of Ilp2 in dorsomedial neurosecretory cells decreases through the three larval instars.

Ilp2 is expressed in a bilaterally symmetrical cluster of 5 to 7 neurosecretory cells in the pars intercerebralis. It is co-expressed with Ilp3 and Ilp5.

Transcript is expressed in two clusters of cells in the pars intercerebralis corresponding to the medial neurosecretory cell clusters (m-NSCs) from the first through third larval instars.

Transcript is detected in the embryo with low levels in the embryonic mesoderm and high signal in the midgut. During the third larval instar transcript is ubiquitously expressed in imaginal discs at a low level and a high signal is detected in seven cells in each brain hemisphere in an anterior-medial postion

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Ilp2 and Scer\GAL4Ilp6.PC are expressed in the same subset of stellate perineurial glial cells.

Ilp2 protein is expressed in the insulin producing cells (IPC), a subset of the dorsomedial neurosecretory cells of the pars intercerebralis and in other dorsal cells of this cluster. The IPC cells that express Ilp2 are also labeled by the expression of Scer\GAL4GABA-B-R2.PR.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Ilp2-GAL4.215-3}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ilp2-GAL4.R}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ilp2-GAL4.W}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ilp215-1-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Ilp2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 2 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 19 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Ilp2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Ilp2
Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190JPB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150H7M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.
(UniProt, Q9VT51 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Insulin-like Receptor (IR) signaling pathway in Drosophila is initiated by the binding of an insulin-like peptides to the Insulin-like receptor (InR). (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989.)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map

3-31

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:9,799,698..9,800,440 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
67C8-67C8
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}fry02240 and P{lacW}l(3)L0539L0539&P{PZ}Dhh1rL562
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (10)
Genomic Clones (22)
cDNA Clones (2)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 42 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (33)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      IRP
      dilp2
      (Castillo-Quan et al., 2019, Ke and Hsu, 2019, Meschi et al., 2019, Post et al., 2019, Trinh et al., 2019, Zheng et al., 2019, Chen et al., 2018, Galagovsky et al., 2018, Lin et al., 2018, Lowenstein and Velazquez-Ulloa, 2018, Post, 2018.8.22, Post et al., 2018, Roth et al., 2018, Semaniuk et al., 2018, Westfall et al., 2018, Kang et al., 2017, Liao et al., 2017, Monyak et al., 2017, Schoofs et al., 2017, Zandveld et al., 2017, Barry and Thummel, 2016, Hallier et al., 2016, Kubrak et al., 2016, Kučerová et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2016, Schiesari et al., 2016, Hentze et al., 2015, Ismail et al., 2015, Kawasaki et al., 2015, Li and Gong, 2015, Pasco et al., 2015, Sano et al., 2015, Vallejo et al., 2015, Yan et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Gündner et al., 2014, Mulakkal et al., 2014, Whitaker et al., 2014, Kannan and Fridell, 2013, Karpac et al., 2013, Parisi et al., 2013, Shang et al., 2013, Subramanian et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013, Bai et al., 2012, Banerjee et al., 2012, Marshall et al., 2012, Rideout et al., 2012, Yu et al., 2012, Alic et al., 2011, Biteau et al., 2011, Guirao-Rico and Aguadé, 2011, Karpac et al., 2011, McClure et al., 2011, Park et al., 2011, Sheldon et al., 2011, Slack et al., 2011, Wigby et al., 2011, Ballard et al., 2010, De Luca et al., 2010, Grönke et al., 2010, Haselton et al., 2010, Kahsai et al., 2010, Kréneisz et al., 2010, Maynard et al., 2010, Sekine et al., 2010, Slack et al., 2010, Tsuda et al., 2010, Amcheslavsky et al., 2009, Fridell et al., 2009, Hsu and Drummond-Barbosa, 2009, Hull-Thompson et al., 2009, Humphrey et al., 2009, Karpac et al., 2009, Okamoto et al., 2009, Walkiewicz and Stern, 2009, Wessells et al., 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Broughton et al., 2008, Buch et al., 2008, Clements et al., 2008, Flatt et al., 2008, Honegger et al., 2008, Kaplan et al., 2008, Kaplan et al., 2008, Nässel et al., 2008, Nielsen et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Giannakou et al., 2007, Libert, 2007, Mattaliano et al., 2007, Min et al., 2007, Belgacem and Martin, 2006, Broughton et al., 2005, Corl et al., 2005, Flatt et al., 2005, Melcher and Pankratz, 2005, Rhea et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2005, Wu et al., 2005, Cypser and Tatar, 2004, Li and White, 2003, Tatar et al., 2003, Ikeya and Hafen, 2002, Ikeya et al., 2002, Rulifson et al., 2002, Rulifson et al., 2002, Brogiolo et al., 2001)
      Name Synonyms
      Drosophila insulin like peptide 2
      Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2
      Drosophila insulin-like receptor
      Insulin- related peptide 2
      Insulin-like peptide
      Insulin-like peptide 2
      Insulin-related peptide
      insulin-like 2
      insulin-like peptide
      insulin-like peptide-2
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0044432
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (429)