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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PGRP-LB
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LB
Annotation Symbol
CG14704
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0037906
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (3.5.1.28)
Gene Snapshot
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LB (PGRP-LB) encodes a secreted protein with an amidase activity that scavenges DAP-type peptidoglycan, a cell wall component found on Gram-negative bacteria and certain Gram positive bacteria. It negatively regulates the immune deficiency pathway. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:11,452,849..11,460,552 [-]
Recombination map
3-51
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase 2 family. (Q8INK6)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Hydrolyzes the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell-wall glycopeptides (3.5.1.28)
Predictions / Assertions
Hydrolyzes the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell-wall glycopeptides (3.5.1.28)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
LONG PEPTIDOGLYCAN RECOGNITION PROTEINS -
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune response that bind peptidoglycans. Insect PGRPs can be divided into two groups based on transcript size: short PGRPs (PGRP-S) and long PGRPs (PGRP-L). PGRP-L can be intracellular, extracellular, and transmembrane proteins. (Adapted from FBrf0223078).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase involved in innate immunity by degrading bacterial peptidoglycans (PGN). Probably plays a scavenger role by digesting biologically active PGN into biologically inactive fragments. Has no direct bacteriolytic activity.
(UniProt, Q8INK6)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-LB or the JBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-LB for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082398
1129
215
FBtr0082397
1068
215
FBtr0082396
1255
232
FBtr0306097
926
255
FBtr0306098
925
215
FBtr0306099
1234
215
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081874
23.6
215
8.13
FBpp0081873
23.6
215
8.13
FBpp0081872
25.4
232
8.13
FBpp0297234
27.8
255
7.15
FBpp0297235
23.6
215
8.13
FBpp0297236
23.6
215
8.13
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Monomer.
(UniProt, Q8INK6)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PGRP-LB using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VHB3
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664864
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:PGRP-SC1b; FB:FBgn0033327
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664863
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664864
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR006619
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001336553
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001336553
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR017331
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:PGRP-SC1b; FB:FBgn0033327
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001664863
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
PGRP-LB is expressed in the gut and proventriculus and levels are tied to the immune response.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PGRP-LB in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of PGRP-LB
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of PGRP-LB
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
 
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
3 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190GI3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AU5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0F52 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0F4M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0O6Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (13)
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Monomer.
    (UniProt, Q8INK6 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-51
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:11,452,849..11,460,552 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    86E6-86E6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}tho1&P{PZ}l(3)0462905275 and P{EP}Lk6EP886
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (5)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (6)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: PGRP-LB CG14704
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Source for identity of PGRP-LB CG14704 was sequence comparison ( date:001020 ).
    Other Comments
    PGRP-LB down-regulates the imd pathway during local immune response.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 67 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    PGRP-LB
    (Hanson et al., 2019, Sanuki et al., 2019, Aranha and Vasconcelos, 2018, Charroux et al., 2018, Fan et al., 2018, Garschall and Flatt, 2018, Min and Tatar, 2018, Troha et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Zhai et al., 2018, Capo et al., 2017, Kounatidis et al., 2017, Kurz et al., 2017, Liu and Jin, 2017, Tavignot et al., 2017, Yadav et al., 2017, Bonfini et al., 2016, Broderick, 2016, Capo et al., 2016, Costechareyre et al., 2016, Guillou et al., 2016, Mistry et al., 2016, Castillo et al., 2015, El Chamy et al., 2015, Kavi et al., 2015, Shiao et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2014, Kleino and Silverman, 2014, Myllymäki et al., 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Buchon et al., 2013, Erkosar et al., 2013, Ferrandon, 2013, Gendrin et al., 2013, Kuraishi et al., 2013, Marianes and Spradling, 2013, Short and Lazzaro, 2013, Stefanatos et al., 2013, Bosco-Drayon et al., 2012, Eleftherianos and Castillo, 2012, Kounatidis and Ligoxygakis, 2012, Neyen et al., 2012, Apidianakis and Rahme, 2011, Douglas et al., 2011, Paredes et al., 2011, Valanne et al., 2011, Zaidman-Rémy et al., 2011, Ryu et al., 2010, Buchon et al., 2009, Gendrin et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Lee and Edery, 2008, Lhocine et al., 2008, Ryu et al., 2008, Wagner et al., 2008, Curtis et al., 2007, Pal et al., 2007, Sackton et al., 2007, Waterhouse et al., 2007, Zaidman-Remy et al., 2007, Zaidman-Remy et al., 2006, Kim et al., 2005, Wertheim et al., 2005, Reiser et al., 2004, Mellroth et al., 2003, Christophides et al., 2002)
    Name Synonyms
    Peptidoglycan recognition protein LB
    Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LB precursor
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (115)