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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Tk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Tachykinin
Annotation Symbol
CG14734
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0037976
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

DTK, tachykinin-3, DTK-6, DTK-1, DTK-5

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:11,994,175..12,005,473 [-]
Recombination map

3-51

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:11994175..12005473
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:TkR86C; FB:FBgn0004841
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:TkR99D; FB:FBgn0004622
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the tachykinin family. (Q9VGE8)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    NEUROPEPTIDES -
    Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Tachykinins are active peptides which excite neurons, evoke behavioral responses, are potent vasodilators and secretagogues, and contract (directly or indirectly) many smooth muscles. Stimulates gut muscle contractions (PubMed:10801863). Required for the response to the male sex pheromone CH503 which is transferred from males to females during mating and inhibits courtship behavior by other males (PubMed:26083710). The Gr68a gustatory receptor is required for detection of the pheromone and Gr68a-expressing neurons in the male foreleg relay signals to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ) which leads to courtship suppression through release of tachykinin from a cluster of 8-10 neurons in the SEZ (PubMed:26083710).
    (UniProt, Q9VGE8)
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    a secreted neuropeptide that regulates aggression, response to metabolic stress, and insulin-producing cells

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    2

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Tk or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Tk for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.47

    Gene model reviewed during 5.55

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0082488
    1557
    289
    FBtr0335435
    1618
    297
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0081962
    31.7
    289
    8.79
    FBpp0307416
    32.8
    297
    9.52
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments

    Small Tk-derived neuropeptides identified by 2D capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS: APLAFVGLR-amide, APNGFLGMR-amide, APTGFTGMR-amide, APTSSFIGMR-amide, APVNSFVGMR-amide.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Tk using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    endocrine cell | subset of embryonic/larval midgut | posterior

    Comment: just anterior to Malpighian tubules

    RT-PCR
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    RT-PCR detects Tk transcript expression in adult heads, but not in isolated antennae.

    Tk transcript is first observed at embryonic stage 17, in 15 cells in the midgut, one of which is isolated from the other 14; a pair of medially located unidentified cells just posterior to the brain, and two lateral groups of cells that might be associated with the trachea. In larvae, Tk transcript is expressed in cells with endocrine cell-like morphology in the posterior midgut, just anterior to the Malpighian tubules. In the third instar larval brain, Tk transcript is strongly localized to 5 pairs of neuronal cell bodies in the larval protocerebrum, 2 pairs in the tritocerebrum, and 2 pairs of descending neurons. An additional 3 pairs of protocerebral and one pair of tritocerebral neurons have weak Tk expression. In the larval ventral ganglion, one pair of Tk-positive cells is found in the thoracic neuromere, and 8 pairs in the abdominal neuromere. In adult females, Tk transcript is observed in endocrine-like cells in the anterior and posterior thirds of midgut, but not in the central third.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    distribution deduced from reporter (Gal4 UAS)
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    Tk protein is expressed in a number of neurons in the larval brain which project into the ventral nerve cord.

    Tk-protein is expressed in a subset of male adult protocerebral LPP2 Tachykinin neurons that co-express Scer\GAL4Tk.

    Tk protein is detected in most layers of the fan-shaped body, except for layer 3. Co-localisation with Scer\GAL4ChAT.7.4 is observed in the central and dorsal layers of the fan-shaped body and 16-18 SMP neurons. Co-localisation with Scer\GAL4c739 and Scer\GAL4NP2320 is observed in the dorsal layers of the fan-shaped body and in a subset of SMP neurons.

    Tk peptides were detected in extracts from adult and larval midguts.

    Tk protein is expressed in 20 local neurons that innervate most adult antennal lobe glomeruli. These neurons have their cell bodies in two clusters, one dorsolateral and the other lateral to the antennal lobe. A subset of the neurons of the dorsolateral cluster co-express Scer\GAL4GH298.

    Approximately 24 Tk-immunoreactive neurons are found in the superior medial protocerebrum.

    Tk protein is expressed in a subset of local interneurons (LNs) of the adult antennal lobe; 70% of Tk-expressing LNs also express Scer\GAL4GH298.

    Tk staining is observed in the posterior half of the posterior midgut and tend to be concentrated near the junction with the hindgut.

    Tk immunoreactivity was found all along the length of the midugt.

    Tk protein is expressed in two pairs of descending neurons in the larval subesophageal ganglion that project axons to the ventral nerve cord; two pairs of triterocerebral neurons that branch within the tritocerebral neuromere, and five pairs of protocerebral neurons that form processes within the protocerebral neuromere. Two pairs of Tk-positive neurons are observed in the metathoracic neuromere, and a few inconsistantly-labeled neurons are observed in the abdominal neuromeres. The adult brain has many Tk-expression neurons that form complex arborizations within the brain neuropils, as well as two pairs of descending neurons. Two large cell bodies in the metathoracic neuromere, as well as a pair in the abdominal neuromeres, also express Tk protein. Around 20 large Tk protein-expressing cells with morphology similar to endocrine cells are located in the larval posterior midgut, just anterior the Malpighian tubules. Many more Tk-positive endocrine cells, slightly smaller than the larval midgut cells, are found in the adult midgut; these cells have an elongated shape and often span the gut epithelium.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\Tk in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 13 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Tk
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Tk
    Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
    1 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190E8O )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091509V7 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0CAS )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0C8Q )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3R
      Recombination map

      3-51

      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3R:11,994,175..12,005,473 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      87A4-87A4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Lk6EP886 and P{PZ}svp07842
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (16)
      Genomic Clones (26)
      cDNA Clones (23)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: Tk CG14734

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments

      Source for identity of Tk CG14734 was sequence comparison ( date:000815 ).

      Other Comments

      Tk and its receptor TkR99D are required for the hypersensitivity to pain that is normally seen after tissue injury in larvae. They act upstream of hh in the pain-detecting neurons.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (38)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Tachykinin 1
      Tachykinin 2
      Tachykinin 4
      Tachykinin 5
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (122)