General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Burs
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Bursicon
Annotation Symbol
CG13419
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0038901
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Bursicon is a cystine knot protein. It dimerizes with Pburs to form the bursicon neurohormone that acts on the rk receptor. Bursicon neurohormone is released after adult emergence and is required for tanning and hardening of the cuticle and expansion of the wings. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
bursα, burs α
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:21,769,518..21,770,279 [+]
Recombination map
3-73
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
NEUROPEPTIDES -
Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Final heterodimeric neurohormone released at the end of the molting cycle, involved in the sclerotization (tanning) of the insect cuticle, melanization and wing spreading. Heterodimer specifically activates the G protein-coupled receptor rk.
(UniProt, Q9VD83)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Burs or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Burs for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084131
640
173
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083529
19.2
173
7.78
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
antibody probe was IgYs harvested from egg yolks of chicken immunized and boosted with synthetic Drosophila Burs peptide (sequences 91â 108)
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Heterodimer of Burs and Pburs.
(UniProt, Q9VD83)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Burs using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:rk; FB:FBgn0003255
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VJS7
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0031395
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Pburs; FB:FBgn0264810
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
burs transcript is detected in several pairs of neurons in the pharate pupae ventral nerve cord. Strong expression is detected in one neuron in each T3 and A6 segments and 2 neurons in segments A1 to A5. All of these neurons also express CCAP transcript, and one neuron in each A1-A4 segments co-expresses pburs transcript. Expression of burs transcript is very similar to the expression of burs protein.
RT-PCR analysis indicates that burs transcript levels are low in the third larval stage, gradually increasing during pupal stages and reaching the highest levels in pharate adults. Levels are low in adults.
expressed in cells which also express CCAP.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
distribution deduced from reporter (Gal4 UAS)
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Burs-protein is expressed in a subset of peptidergic neurons in the larval ventral nerve cord. Directly after eclosion expression is detected in around 14 neurons in the posterior part of the thoracico-abdominal ganglion. This number decreases to zero over the first day after eclosion.
burs protein is detected in several pairs of neurons in the pharate pupae ventral nerve cord. Strong expression is detected in one neuron in each T3, A5-A7 segments and 2 neurons in segments A1 to A4. All of these neurons also express CCAP transcript, and one neuron in each A1-A4 segments co-expresses pburs transcript. Expression of burs protein is very similar to the expression of burs transcript.
burs protein is expressed in a subset of CCAP neurons labeled with Scer\GAL4CCAP.PP in the adult brain, including neurons in the subesophageal ganglion that extend their axons along the midline to the anterior brain.
In the larval ventral nerve cord, burs is prominently expressed in: two prominent pairs of neurons in the subesophageal ganglion; one pair of neurons in each of the first two thoracic neuromeres and two pairs in the third; two pairs of neurons in each of the first four abdominal neuromeres, and one to two pairs in the remaining abdominal neuromeres. In the adult, burs is expressed in a bilateral pair of neurons in the subesophageal ganglion, and in seven bilaterally paired neurons of the third thoracic neuromere and the abdominal ganglion.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Pburs; FB:FBgn0264810
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Burs in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 6 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Burs
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Burs
Allele of Burs
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Burs
characterization construct
Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190GEJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150GVO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0LM2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0LTT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0ZCB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Heterodimer of Burs and Pburs.
    (UniProt, Q9VD83 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-73
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:21,769,518..21,770,279 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    93F9-93F9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}InR05545 and P{PZ}tsl00617
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (6)
    Genomic Clones (17)
    cDNA Clones (2)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for identity of: bursicon CG13419
          Source for identity of: Burs burs
          Source for database merge of
          Source for merge of: burs frl
          Additional comments
          Other Comments
          The rk receptor and its signal Burs appear to be involved in intercellular communication within the border follicle cell cluster itself during border cell migration, as the Burs signal is only required in the border cells.
          Bioactive D.melanogaster bursicon is a heterodimer composed of the burs and pburs polypeptides. burs protein by itself does not have bursicon bioactivity.
          Mutants block delamination, migration and bonding of cuticle layers during wing maturation.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 24 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
          Linkouts
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
          Reported As
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
            Datasets (0)
            Study focus (0)
            Experimental Role
            Project
            Project Type
            Title
            References (87)