General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spas
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
spastin
Annotation Symbol
CG5977
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0039141
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
spastin (spas) encodes a member of the AAA ATPase family that assembles into hexamers and severs microtubules along their lengths. The microtubule binding and severing activities of the product of spas are dependent upon tubulin glutamylation levels. Its proposed roles include mitosis, axon transport, synapse formation, dendrite arborization, organelle tubulation, and lipid droplet metabolism. [Date last reviewed: 2018-11-08]
Also Known As
spastin
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,038,215..24,042,982 [+]
Recombination map
3-82
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. Spastin subfamily. (Q8I0P1)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
ATP-dependent microtubule severing protein. Stimulates microtubule minus-end depolymerization and poleward microtubule flux in the mitotic spindle (PubMed:15242610, PubMed:15562320, PubMed:15823537, PubMed:16276413, PubMed:17452528, PubMed:25875445, PubMed:18202664, PubMed:19341724). Regulates microtubule stability in the neuromuscular junction synapse (PubMed:15242610, PubMed:15562320, PubMed:19341724). Involved in lipid metabolism by regulating the size and distribution of lipid droplets (PubMed:25875445). Involved in axon regeneration by regulating microtubule severing (PubMed:23122959).
(UniProt, Q8I0P1)
Interactive Fly
AAA (TPase ssociated with diverse cellular ctivities) family member - regulates microtubule stability - mutants show defects in synaptic growth and neurotransmission
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\spas or the JBrowse view of Dmel\spas for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Gene model reviewed during 5.43
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 6.07
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084533
3601
758
FBtr0084534
2791
758
FBtr0321260
3147
696
FBtr0346099
3743
696
FBtr0445310
2810
551
FBtr0445311
3147
489
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083918
82.7
758
10.06
FBpp0083919
82.7
758
10.06
FBpp0302812
75.8
696
9.87
FBpp0311932
75.8
696
9.87
FBpp0401487
60.7
551
10.13
FBpp0401488
53.7
489
9.88
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

758 aa isoforms: spas-PA, spas-PB
696 aa isoforms: spas-PC, spas-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homohexamer. The homohexamer is stabilized by ATP-binding. The homohexamer may adopt a ring conformation through which microtubules pass prior to being severed (PubMed:18202664). Interacts with microtubules (PubMed:15823537, PubMed:18202664). Interacts with atl; may be involved in microtubule dynamics (PubMed:19341724).
(UniProt, Q8I0P1)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\spas using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (31 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VC57
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003959, InterPro:IPR003960
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000553508
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000553509
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000553509
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with synaptic vesicle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000553509
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
High levels of maternally supplied spas transcript is ubiquitously distributed in embryos through embryonic stage 4. At cellularization, expression is strongest near the basal side of the forming cell layer. During germband extension, spas is expressed in the ventral head and trunk ectoderm, in cells near the cephalic furrow, and in the invaginating midgut and hindgut primordia. At embryonic stage 13, spas transcript is expressed cells of all CNS neuromeres, including the subesophageal and supraesophageal ganglia. At embryonic stages 16-17, expression is pronounced in cell clusters throughout the supraesophageal ganglion, in the subesophageal ganglion, in two broad longitudial stripes in the ventral nerve cord, as well as weaker expression in some midline cells of the ventral nerve cord. Expression is also observed in the peripheral sense organs of the head, including Bolwig's organ and the dorsal organs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
muscle cell

Comment: not in nucleus; wandering third instar

motor neuron

Comment: not in nucleus; wandering third instar

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with synaptic vesicle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\spas in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of spas
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 16 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of spas
Allele of spas
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of spas
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
somatic muscle & microtubule, with Scer\GAL4G14
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919050Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503KU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04KB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04GW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0Q8J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
Download
Models ( 6 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Interactions ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments ( 0 )
 
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
protein-protein
Interacting group
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homohexamer. The homohexamer is stabilized by ATP-binding. The homohexamer may adopt a ring conformation through which microtubules pass prior to being severed (PubMed:18202664). Interacts with microtubules (PubMed:15823537, PubMed:18202664). Interacts with atl; may be involved in microtubule dynamics (PubMed:19341724).
(UniProt, Q8I0P1 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-82
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,038,215..24,042,982 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
95D9-95D9
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0468404684 and P{PZ}Atg600096
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (8)
Genomic Clones (21)
cDNA Clones (35)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: spas CG5977
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
spas loss causes neuronal defects that cannot be overcome by bypassing normal nociceptive transduction mechanisms.
High levels of spas disrupt microtubule organization within dendritic arbors.
The microtubule interacting and ATPase domains are sufficient for the ATP hydrolysis-dependent microtubule disassembly activity of spas.
spas appears to have a role in destabilising the microtubule cytoskeleton in neurons.
Targeted removal of spas from neurons result in loss of synaptic area but, paradoxically, strengthened neurotransmission. Overexpression of spas in neurons reduced synaptic efficiency. Loss of spas function leads to a dramatic increase in stabilised microtubules, which, in the synaptic terminal, inappropriately ramify beyond their normal axonal compartments into the synaptic boutons. Overexpression of spas causes an erosion of the stabilised microtubule network.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 63 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (97)