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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Capa
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Capability
Annotation Symbol
CG15520
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0039722
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Capability (Capa) encodes three neuropeptides: two of the periviscerokinin family (CAPA-1 and CAPA-2) and one pyrokinin (pyrokinin-1) that activate the class A GPCRs encoded by CapaR and PK1-R respectively. Capa is expressed in neurosecretory cells innervating corpora cardiaca and abdomen. CAPA-1 and -2 act as diuretic hormones on the Malpighian tubules. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As
capa-1, CAP2b, capa-2, capa-3, Drm-PK-1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:29,912,991..29,914,346 [-]
Recombination map
3-99
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the pyrokinin family. (Q9NIP6)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    NEUROPEPTIDES -
    Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    CAP-1 and CAP-2, but not CAP-3 are ligands for the Capa receptor (PubMed:12177421, PubMed:12459185). CAP-1 and CAP-2 are probably components of the signal transduction pathway that leads to Malpighian tubule fluid secretion via the second messenger nitric oxide (PubMed:11959669). CAP-3 is a ligand for the PK1-R G-protein coupled receptor (PubMed:16054112).
    (UniProt, Q9NIP6)
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Capa or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Capa for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Gene model reviewed during 5.44
    Gene model reviewed during 5.53
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0085514
    695
    151
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0084880
    16.5
    151
    9.51
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    Small Capa-derived neuropeptides identified by 2D capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS: GANMGLYAFPRV-amide, ASGLVAFPRV-amide, TGPSASSGLWFGPRL-amide, GPSASSGLWFGPRL-amide.
    Small Capa-derived neuropeptides identified by LC-MS/MS: GANMGLYAFPRV-amide, ASGLVAFPRV-amide.
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Capa using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (12 terms)
    Molecular Function (5 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    non-traceable author statement
    inferred from sequence or structural similarity
    inferred from sequence or structural similarity
    Biological Process (5 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from expression pattern
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    traceable author statement
    inferred from sequence or structural similarity
    Cellular Component (2 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from sequence model
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    RT-PCR
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Capa colocalizes with Scer\GAL4ATP7.PB expressing Va neurons.
    Capa is expressed in the peptidergic CC-MS 2 neurons in the larval brain and in the Va neurons of the abdominal ventral nerve cord.
    Three pairs of Va neurons in abdominal ganglia are immunoreactive for Capa. The processes of the first two Va neuron pairs do not exit the ventral ganglio,n but run anterior underneath the dorsal neural sheath in an individually varying pattern, and terminate in the thoracic ganglia. The neurites of the most posterior Va pair fasciculate and leave the ganglion posteriorly.
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\Capa in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 2 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Capa
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Capa
    Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HO0 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DMO )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0Q45 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
       
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3R
      Recombination map
      3-99
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3R:29,912,991..29,914,346 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      99C6-99C6
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ncd05884 and P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (7)
      Genomic Clones (14)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (4)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: capa CG15520
      Source for identity of: Capa capa
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: capa Cap-2b
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      The "capa-1" and "capa-2" peptides encoded by capa increase fluid secretion rates, stimulate nitric oxide production and elevate intracellular Ca2+ and cGMP in principal cells in the Malpighian tubule. The actions of capa-1" and "capa-2" are not synergistic.
      Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day. Shows alteration in expression in a Clk mutant background.
      Transcription of Nos in Malpighian tubules is stimulated by cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (capa); this is dependent on the activation of a soluble guanylate cyclase.
      A peptide with similar properties to CAP2b of M.sexta has been isolated from adult Drosophila. It stimulates fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      The gene is named "capability" because it clearly has the ability to encode two neuropeptides of the CAP[[2b]] family.
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 31 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (59)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      CAP-2b
      CAP2B/pyrokinin
      Capa-PK
      Drm-CAP2b/MT
      Drm-PK
      Drome-capa-1
      pyrokinin/PBAN-like
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0016129
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (122)