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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rols
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
rolling pebbles
Annotation Symbol
CG32096
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0041096
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
rolling pebbles (rols) encodes a protein required for myoblast fusion in founder cells. it interacts with the membrane spanning Immunoglobulin superfamily protein encoded by kirre and with the product of Mhcl. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

Rols7, Ants, Antisocial, l(3)08232

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:12,008,225..12,064,859 [-]
Recombination map

3-38

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:12008225..12064859
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (11 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:mbc; FB:FBgn0015513
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:kirre; FB:FBgn0028369
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Actn; FB:FBgn0000667
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:blow; FB:FBgn0004133
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:zormin; FB:FBgn0052311
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with cell-cell junction
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Summary (Interactive Fly)

RING-finger motif, ankyrin repeat and TR repeat protein - a signaling protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of Dumbfounded and with Myoblast city - functions to integrate initial myoblast fusion with myotube structural organization

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
9
Number of Unique Polypeptides
7

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\rols for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.42

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076056
5505
1569
FBtr0076053
6275
1900
FBtr0076057
5832
1670
FBtr0076054
6026
1569
FBtr0076055
5849
1670
FBtr0310009
5846
1669
FBtr0310010
5972
1799
FBtr0334109
5502
1568
FBtr0334110
5969
1798
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

7, 6 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075788
169.1
1569
8.23
FBpp0075785
204.6
1900
6.64
FBpp0075789
180.1
1670
8.46
FBpp0075786
169.1
1569
8.23
FBpp0075787
180.1
1670
8.46
FBpp0301715
179.9
1669
8.46
FBpp0301716
193.6
1799
6.40
FBpp0306229
168.9
1568
8.23
FBpp0306230
193.5
1798
6.40
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1569 aa isoforms: rols-PA, rols-PD
1670 aa isoforms: rols-PC, rols-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1900 (aa); 205 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rols using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
embryonic Malpighian tubule

Comment: transcripts originating from downstream promoter

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

rols is enriched in border follicle cells relative to follicle cells.

rols transcription from the upstream promoter (called rols7) is observed in the differentiating embryonic somatic and visceral mesoderm. Transcription from the downstream rols promoter (called rols6) is strong in early embryonic stage 11 between the ectodermal hindgut anlage and the posterior midgut primordium, where the renal tubes originate. Transcription continues throughout Malpighian tubule development.

Transcript is first detected in the progenitors of visceral, somatic and pharyngeal muscles. Visceral mesoderm expression decreases during germband shortening while somatic mesoderm expression persists. At stage 15 rols transcript is no longer detected in the mesoderm but rather in muscle attachment sites along the segmental border.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The protein is detected in discrete aggregates in the cytoplasm of founder muscle progenitor cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with cell-cell junction
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\rols in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 32 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rols
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rols
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
dorsal acute muscle & myotube
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (15)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900EK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500E5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00HR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00GX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00QZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map

3-38

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:12,008,225..12,064,859 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
68F1-68F1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}CycA02461&P{PZ}CycA03946 and P{PZ}rols08232&P{lacW}l(3)j2D3j2D3
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
68F1-68F2
68F1-68F3
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (11)
Genomic Clones (45)
cDNA Clones (31)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: rols l(3)08232

    Source for merge of: rols CG12277

    Source for merge of: rols anon-WO0257455.19

    Source for merge of: rols CG17155 CG5679

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG12277, CG17155, CG5679 merged as CG32096 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

    "CG17155" is a candidate gene for "E(sda)H".

    Source for merge of rols CG12277 was sequence identity ( date:011221 ).

    Source for merge of rols anon-WO0257455.19 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Source for merge of rols CG17155 CG5679 was sequence comparison ( date:011124 ).

    Other Comments

    The ankyrin repeats of the rols protein are essential for kirre-dependent translocation, whereas the TPR/coiled-coil region functions after translocation.

    rols acts during myoblast fusion to link the initial event of myoblast attraction with the downstream event of myotubule structural organisation.

    rols mutants are defective in myoblast fusion.

    Mutations in rols result in severe defects in myoblast fusion.

    rols is involved in muscle fusion in the developing embryo.

    The fusion process during muscle development is severely disrupted in mutant embryos.

    Complementation groups l(3)68Fa, l(3)68Fb, l(3)68Fc, l(3)68Fd, l(3)68Fe, Nrx-IV, l(3)69Aa and l(3)69Ab isolated by Hoogwerf et al. (FBrf0048238) probably correspond to complementation groups l(3)68Fg, l(3)j2D3, l(3)68Fh, rols, l(3)68Fi, Nrx-IV, l(3)69Ah and l(3)69Ai isolated by Baumgartner at al, 1996, Cell 87: 1059--1068, but a one to one correspondence cannot be made as Hoogwerf mutations are apparently lost.

    Complementation group isolated during complementation analysis of Nrx-IV region.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    The gene is named "rolling pebbles" after the mutant phenotype; mutant embryos have a scattered distribution of unfused myoblasts.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 92 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (24)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CG5679
    Rol/Ants
    anon-WO0257455.19
    l(3)j2A6
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010928
    • FBgn0011323
    • FBgn0036241
    • FBgn0036243
    • FBgn0036244
    • FBgn0052096
    • FBgn0063612
    • FBgn0063798
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (104)