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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\armi
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
armitage
Annotation Symbol
CG11513
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0041164
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
DNA helicase (3.6.4.12)
Gene Snapshot
armitage (armi) encodes a highly conserved cytosolic 5'-3' RNA helicase that is involved in biogenesis of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), which suppress transposable elements in the fly germline. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:3,461,317..3,466,314 [+]
Recombination map

3-8

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:3461317..3466314
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the DNA2/NAM7 helicase family. SDE3 subfamily. (Q6J5K9)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.4.12)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Probable RNA helicase required for axial polarization of the oocyte during early and mid oogenesis. Plays a central role in RNA interference (RNAi) process, a process that mediates mRNA destruction of translational repression. Required for the assembly of the RISC complex, a complex required for target RNA destruction or repression. May be required in the RISC assembly to unwind miRNAs, in the production of single-stranded miRNA from the double-stranded miRNA, a key step in RISC formation. Required both for the translational control of oskar (osk) mRNA and cytoskeletal polarization in the oocyte. Required for somatic primary piRNA biogenesis.
(UniProt, Q6J5K9)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\armi or the JBrowse view of Dmel\armi for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.41

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

gene_with_dicistronic_mRNA ; SO:0000722

Gene model reviewed during 6.32

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0100641
4145
1188
FBtr0309840
3631
1154
FBtr0309841
4151
1188
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0100102
135.7
1188
6.09
FBpp0301574
131.5
1154
6.25
FBpp0301575
135.7
1188
6.09
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1188 aa isoforms: armi-PB, armi-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Forms a complex with piwi and fs(1)Yb; this interaction is required for proper piRNA loading and nuclear localization of piwi. The interaction of piwi and fs(1)Yb is likely to occur via armi.

(UniProt, Q6J5K9)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\armi using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (24 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:fs(1)Yb; FB:FBgn0000928
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:piwi; FB:FBgn0004872
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:vret; FB:FBgn0263143
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000094509
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000094957
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000094957
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000094957
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Weak expression of armi is seen in the cytoplasm of germline nurse cells and their surrounding somatic follicle cells, which contain one or more strong foci of armi staining. Colocalization with fs(1)Yb suggests that the armi foci are Yb bodies. armi is only weakly associated with P granules.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\armi in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 15 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of armi
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of armi
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
microtubule organizing center & oocyte (with armi1)
microtubule organizing center & oocyte (with armi72.1)
oocyte & microtubule
oocyte & microtubule organizing center
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (11)
3 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919012U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502T0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02KD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02HO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03T8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
7 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Forms a complex with piwi and fs(1)Yb; this interaction is required for proper piRNA loading and nuclear localization of piwi. The interaction of piwi and fs(1)Yb is likely to occur via armi.
    (UniProt, Q6J5K9 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-8

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:3,461,317..3,466,314 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    63E1-63E1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}kst01318 and P{PZ}Sc205634
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (13)
    Genomic Clones (23)
    cDNA Clones (27)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      polyclonal

      monoclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: armi CG11513

      Additional comments

      One or more of the processed transcripts for this gene contain(s) two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). The non-overlapping ORFs are represented by CG46463 and CG11513.

      Other Comments

      Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.

      armi is required for the accumulation of repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs).

      armi is required for RNA interference, and the data suggests that armi is required for the assembly of siRNA into functional RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC).

      armi mutants are impaired in a step in RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) assembly after binding of the siRNA to the Dcr-2/r2d2 protein heterodimer.

      armi is required for posterior and dorsoventral patterning during oogenesis.

      Mutations in armi block posterior migration of the microtubule organising centre and cause defects in RNA localisation in the oocyte.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      The gene is named "armitage" after the navigator on Robert Falcon Scott's failed Discovery expedition to the South Pole.

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 42 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      armi
      (FlyBase Genome Annotators, 2020, Chang et al., 2019, Ge et al., 2019, Kolliopoulou et al., 2019, Story et al., 2019, Whittle and Extavour, 2019, Dufourt et al., 2017, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2017, Vrettos et al., 2017, Blumenstiel et al., 2016, Brewer-Jensen et al., 2016, Carbone et al., 2016, Catrina et al., 2016, Fagegaltier et al., 2016, Ge et al., 2016, Lee et al., 2016, Na et al., 2016, Gandhi et al., 2015, Han et al., 2015, Onorati et al., 2015, Yu et al., 2015, Atikukke et al., 2014, Hayashi et al., 2014, Hayashi et al., 2014, Luck et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2014, Minakhina et al., 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Czech et al., 2013, Dennis et al., 2013, Dönertas et al., 2013, Handler et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Muerdter et al., 2013, Ohtani et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Terriente-Felix et al., 2013, Vagin et al., 2013, Gistelinck et al., 2012, Hodgetts et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kelleher et al., 2012, Olivieri et al., 2012, Sienski et al., 2012, Soshnev et al., 2012, Vazquez-Pianzola and Suter, 2012, Handler et al., 2011, Klenov et al., 2011, Ni et al., 2011, Haase et al., 2010, Khurana et al., 2010, Nagao et al., 2010, Olivieri et al., 2010, Orsi et al., 2010, Rouget et al., 2010, Yassin et al., 2010, Althoff et al., 2009, Klattenhoff et al., 2009, Malone et al., 2009, Navarro et al., 2009, Robine et al., 2009, Vilmos et al., 2009, Chambeyron et al., 2008, Atikukke and Finley, 2007, Josse et al., 2007, Klenov et al., 2007, Lim and Kai, 2007, Tadros et al., 2007, Ashraf et al., 2006, Liebl et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Vagin et al., 2006, Vagin et al., 2006, Liebl and Featherstone, 2005)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0035448
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (182)