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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Atx2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Ataxin-2
Annotation Symbol
CG5166
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0041188
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Ataxin-2 (Atx2) encodes the ortholog of human gene ATXN2, which is implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia 2. It contributes to eye development, circadian behaviour, and microRNA function. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

dAtx2, Atx-2, l(3)06490, Sca2, dSCA2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:15,408,423..15,417,277 [+]
Recombination map

3-57

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:15408423..15417277
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (23 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:tyf; FB:FBgn0026083
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000304339
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:tyf; FB:FBgn0026083
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:per; FB:FBgn0003068
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:tyf; FB:FBgn0026083
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000304339
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000304339
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000304339
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the ataxin-2 family. (Q8SWR8)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
RNA binding protein that regulates various processes including circadian behaviors, actin filament formation, eye development and oocyte formation (PubMed:12524342, PubMed:28388438). Forms a complex with tyf and pAbp which functions in adult circadian pacemaker neurons to sustain circadian rhythms likely by switching between activator and repressor modes of post-transcriptional regulation via interaction with Lsm12a or me31B (PubMed:28388438). Forms an activator complex (Atx2-tyf activator complex) via association with Lsm12a and activates the TYF-dependent translation of per to maintain 24 hour periodicity in circadian locomotor behaviors (PubMed:28388438). Forms a repressor complex (Atx2-Not1 repressor complex) via the me31B-dependent association with Not1 to promote Not1-dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing and support high-amplitude circadian rhythms in a per-independent manner (PubMed:28388438). Regulates actin filament formation, though it does not directly assemble with actin filaments (PubMed:12524342). Required for oocyte specification and oocyte positioning in the female germline (PubMed:12524342). Also required for normal eye development and bristle morphology (PubMed:12524342).
(UniProt, Q8SWR8)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Atx2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Atx2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083101
4323
888
FBtr0083099
4533
1084
FBtr0083100
4999
1023
FBtr0344377
4935
1023
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082557
96.7
888
8.89
FBpp0082555
117.6
1084
9.25
FBpp0082556
111.4
1023
8.15
FBpp0310750
111.4
1023
8.15
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1023 aa isoforms: Atx2-PC, Atx2-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer (PubMed:28388438). In the circadian pacemaker neurons, core component of the Atx2-tyf activator complex composed of at least Atx2, tyf, pAbp, Lsm12a (PubMed:28388438). In the circadian pacemaker neurons, also a core component of the Atx2-Not1 repressor complex composed of at least Atx2, tyf, pAbp, me31B (PubMed:28388438). Interacts (via PAM2 motif) with pAbp (PubMed:28388438). Interacts (via N-terminus) with tyf independently of pAbp (PubMed:28388438). Forms a subcomplex composed of Atx2 and pAbP which can associate with the 5' cap of pre-mRNAs independently of tyf, Lsm12a or me31B (PubMed:28388438). Interacts with Lsm12a and me31B (PubMed:28388438).

(UniProt, Q8SWR8)
Domain

The PAM2 motif, and therefore interaction with pAbp, is essential for binding to the 5' cap of pre-mRNAs.

(UniProt, Q8SWR8)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Atx2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Atx2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 25 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Atx2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Atx2
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult thorax & chaeta, with Atx2UAS.cSa, Scer\GAL4- :
adult thorax & chaeta, with Atx2X1, Scer\GAL4- :
nurse cell & actin filament | germ-line clone
nurse cell & nucleus | germ-line clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908AH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502HF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W029Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0277 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02M9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 9 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer (PubMed:28388438). In the circadian pacemaker neurons, core component of the Atx2-tyf activator complex composed of at least Atx2, tyf, pAbp, Lsm12a (PubMed:28388438). In the circadian pacemaker neurons, also a core component of the Atx2-Not1 repressor complex composed of at least Atx2, tyf, pAbp, me31B (PubMed:28388438). Interacts (via PAM2 motif) with pAbp (PubMed:28388438). Interacts (via N-terminus) with tyf independently of pAbp (PubMed:28388438). Forms a subcomplex composed of Atx2 and pAbP which can associate with the 5' cap of pre-mRNAs independently of tyf, Lsm12a or me31B (PubMed:28388438). Interacts with Lsm12a and me31B (PubMed:28388438).
(UniProt, Q8SWR8 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-57

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:15,408,423..15,417,277 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
88F4-88F4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}MRG15j6A3 and P{PZ}l(3)0653606536
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
88F-89A1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
88F7-88F8
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (12)
Genomic Clones (11)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (66)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Atx2 l(3)06490 BEST:GH27029

    Source for merge of: Atx2 CG5166

    Source for merge of: Atx2 anon-WO0118547.351 anon-WO0140519.1

    Source for merge of: Atx2 anon- EST:fe2E1

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of Atx2 CG5166 was a shared cDNA ( date:030206 ).

    Source for merge of Atx2 anon-WO0118547.351 anon-WO0140519.1 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Source for merge of Atx2 anon- EST:fe2E1 was sequence comparison ( date:030620 ).

    Other Comments

    S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.

    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

    Area matching Drosophila EST AI062939.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 70 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BEST:GH27029
    anon-EST:fe2E1
    anon-WO0118547.351
    anon-WO0140519.1
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010892
    • FBgn0025221
    • FBgn0038338
    • FBgn0044786
    • FBgn0062074
    • FBgn0063367
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (116)