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Important message

Updated sequence information for this Drosophila species is no longer provided by FlyBase. Gene model annotations for this species are now updated and maintained at NCBI, using the gnomon automated annotation pipeline. See the NCBI page ‘Eukaryotic genomes annotated at NCBI’.

The FlyBase BLAST tool will continue to support queries against the reference genome of this species, but not queries against annotated transcripts or proteins. For the current release, there is no JBrowse or GBrowse view of the gene model annotations for this species.

The FlyBase archived release FB2017_05 includes the last NCBI annotation update for this species that was imported into FlyBase. That sequence data can be accessed from archived gene reports, via the archived GBrowse tool, and via archived bulk-data downloads.

General Information
D. simulans
Annotation Symbol
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Neprilysin (
Procollagen N-endopeptidase (
Stromelysin 1 (
Meprin A (
Procollagen C-endopeptidase (
Astacin (
Stromelysin 2 (
Matrilysin (
Gelatinase A (
Gelatinase B (
Saccharolysin (
Pitrilysin (
Insulysin (
O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase (
Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (
Nardilysin (
Mitochondrial processing peptidase (
Bontoxilysin (
Oligopeptidase A (
Endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (
Fibrolase (
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (4 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001881, InterPro:IPR018097
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001506, InterPro:IPR015446
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR006026
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001506, InterPro:IPR006026
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Preferential cleavage of polypeptides between hydrophobic residues, particularly with Phe or Tyr at P1' (
Cleaves the N-propeptide of collagen chain alpha-1(I) at Pro-|-Gln and of alpha-1(II) and alpha-2(I) at Ala-|-Gln (
Preferential cleavage where P1', P2' and P3' are hydrophobic residues (
Hydrolysis of protein and peptide substrates preferentially on carboxyl side of hydrophobic residues (
Cleavage of the C-terminal propeptide at Ala-|-Asp in type I and II procollagens and at Arg-|-Asp in type III (
Hydrolysis of peptide bonds in substrates containing five or more amino acids, preferentially with Ala in P1', and Pro in P2' (
Similar to stromelysin 1, but action on collagen types III, IV and V is weak (
Cleavage of 14-Ala-|-Leu-15 and 16-Tyr-|-Leu-17 in B chain of insulin (
No action on collagen types I, II, IV, V (
Cleaves gelatin chain alpha-2(I) > alpha-1(I) (
Cleavage of gelatin type I and collagen types IV, V, VII, X (
Cleaves the collagen-like sequence Pro-Gln-Gly-|-Ile-Ala-Gly-Gln (
Cleavage of gelatin types I and V and collagen types IV and V (
Cleavage of Pro-|-Phe and Ala-|-Ala bonds (
Preferential cleavage of 16-Tyr-|-Leu-17 and 25-Phe-|-Tyr-26 bonds of oxidized insulin B chain (
Also acts on other substrates of Mw less than 7 kDa such as insulin and glucagon (
Degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides (
No action on proteins (
Hydrolysis of O-sialoglycoproteins (
Cleaves 31-Arg-|-Asp-32 bond in glycophorin A (
Does not cleave unglycosylated proteins, desialylated glycoproteins or glycoproteins that are only N-glycosylated (
Release of an N-terminal octapeptide as second stage of processing of some proteins imported into the mitochondrion (
Hydrolysis of polypeptides, preferably at -Xaa-|-Arg-Lys-, and less commonly at -Arg-|-Arg-Xaa-, in which Xaa is not Arg or Lys (
Release of N-terminal transit peptides from precursor proteins imported into the mitochondrion, typically with Arg in position P2 (
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevins, SNAP25 or syntaxin (
No detected action on small molecule substrates (
Hydrolysis of oligopeptides, with broad specificity (
Gly or Ala commonly occur as P1 or P1' residues, but more distant residues are also important, as is shown by the fact that Z-Gly-Pro-Gly-|-Gly-Pro-Ala is cleaved, but not Z-(Gly)(5) (
Hydrolysis of the 21-Trp-|-Val-22 bond in big endothelin to form endothelin 1 (
Hydrolysis of 14-Ala-|-Leu-15 in insulin B chain and 413-Lys-|-Leu-414 in alpha-chain of fibrinogen (
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
Number of Unique Polypeptides
Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
Comments on Gene Model
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
External Data
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dsim\tld using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dsim\tld in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 0 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 0 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Dsim\tld
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Dsim\tld
Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Phenotype manifest in
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila melanogaster (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919016C )
Common Name
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    External Data
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    Recombination map
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (0)
    Genomic Clones (0)
      cDNA Clones (0)

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

            cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
            BDGP DGC clones
              Other clones
                RNAi and Array Information
                Antibody Information
                Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                Commercially Available Antibodies
                Other Information
                Relationship to Other Genes
                Source for database identify of
                Source for database merge of
                Additional comments
                Other Comments
                Origin and Etymology
                External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 38 )
                Sequence Crossreferences
                NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
                Synonyms and Secondary IDs (3)
                Reported As
                Name Synonyms
                Secondary FlyBase IDs
                  Datasets (0)
                  Study focus (0)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project Type
                  References (12)